Canada Among Nations, 1997

Canada Among Nations, 1997: Asia Pacific Face-Off

Copyright Date: 1997
Pages: 363
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  • Book Info
    Canada Among Nations, 1997
    Book Description:

    Asia Pacific Face-Off is the thirteenth in the Canada Among Nations series published by The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs. In recognition of the government's designation of 1997 as Canada's Year of Asia Pacific, the volume focuses on aspects of Canada's relations with the countries in this region. During 1997 Canada will host the annual Leaders Meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and a number of apec ministerial meetings. As many of our contributors suggest, Canada has not yet acquired much of a presence in the Asia Pacific region, and we have some distance to go before our status as an Asia Pacific nation is taken seriously by our APEC partners. The high profile of Team Canada missions should not be mistakenly interpreted as evidence of concerted Canadian policy with respect to Asia Pacific. In terms of educational or economic linkages with the countries of APEC, Canada could take lessons from Australia, a country whose policies our authors compare with Canada's.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7406-9
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    Fen Osier Hampson, Maureen Appel Molot and Martin Rudner
  5. I Asia Pacific Face-Off
    (pp. 1-20)

    In November 1997, Canada faces off with its Pacific Rim partners by hosting the annual Leaders’ Meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Vancouver. To mark this event, and the APEC ministerial meetings that will be held across the country during the year, 1997 has been designated by the Chrétien government as Canada’s Year of Asia Pacific (CYAP). The government sees CYAP as a “milestone ... a recognition of a fundamental fact of Canadian existence” that the country is part of the Asia Pacific community.¹ In recognition of CYAP and the importance Canada attaches to its relationships...

  6. II Foreign Policy Under the Liberals: Prime Ministerial Leadership in the Chrétien Government’s Foreign Policy-making Process
    (pp. 21-50)

    1996 was a year of considerable change in the foreign policy decisionmaking process of the Canadian government, and in the foreign policy which that process produced. The year opened with three new ministers appointed to manage the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT); Lloyd Axworthy became Foreign Minister, Art Eggleton Trade Minister, and Pierre Pettigrew Minister of State Responsible for International Cooperation and La Francophonie. Change continued during the summer with the most far-reaching reorganization within DFAIT since the combined Department was created in 1982. Change culminated at year’s end with Ottawa’s foreign policy decision-making machinery mobilized to...

  7. III Canada In the Global Economy: Where Do We Stand?
    (pp. 51-80)

    What a difference a decade can make! In the middle of the 1980s, Canadians were consumed by considerations relating to bilateral trade relations with the United States. The federal government’s pursuit of a free trade agreement with our neighbours to the south had stirred up spirited debate and made trade policy a matter of household concern. Dire predictions of Canada’s imminent demise were matched by equally hyperbolic claims of unprecedented pending prosperity. Free trade turned out to be neither a calamity nor a panacea, but trade did become ever more important to the daily concerns of Canadians. Between 1986 and...

  8. IV Canada and the Clinton White House: Looking Back and Looking Ahead at Canadian-American Relations
    (pp. 81-104)

    Every four years, Americans are summoned to reflect on the state of the nation and to consider who is best suited and equipped to provide presidential leadership. In the 1996 election, despite repeated attacks on his character by Republican critics, President Clinton received a clear mandate from the electorate to prepare the United States for the new millennium. Although the election did not ignite the emotions and spirit of the American people as other presidential contests have done, it did generate considerable interest among America’s allies and adversaries. Recognizing the increasingly important linkage between domestic politics and foreign policy behaviour,...

  9. V Canada and Asia Pacific
    (pp. 105-118)

    On October 26, 1993, a day after my election as a Member of Parliament, I was hurried aboard a red-eye flight to Ottawa at the request of the newly elected Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. For the first time in its history, the government of Canada would have a Secretary of State for Asia Pacific. The Prime Minister was determined to fulfill Liberal campaign commitments to increase exports and get more of Canada’s small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) trading, particularly in the rapidly expanding markets of the Asia Pacific.

    It has been a busy, but exciting, three years and as Secretary...

  10. VI Canada’s Role in APEC
    (pp. 119-144)

    Reading bureaucratic documents is not riveting at the best of times. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) documents are particularly bland, full of platitudinous phrases and devoid of anything related to action. The Canadian press response to the most recent Leaders’ Meeting in Subic Bay—low profile coverage of Filipina nuns protesting that APEC is anti-Gospel and anti-poor; Prime Minister Chrétien focused on the Rwandan refugee crisis—reflected the sense that APEC is not a very exciting business story. TheFar Eastern Economic Reviewran a series of editorials ranging from explanations of “Why Apec doesn’t matter”² to “The spectacular failure...

  11. VII Australia and Canada View the Asia Pacific
    (pp. 145-166)

    Up to the 1990s, both Australia and Canada were on the edge of, but not quite in, the Asia Pacific region. Australia has long suffered from a sense of loneliness in terms of its physical location. Through the 1950s and 1960s it remained the “misplaced continent”¹—caught between its extant geographical presence in Asia-Pacific and its traditional close sociocultural, economic, and defence connections with Britain and the United States.

    Even as Australian trade and investment ties with the Asia-Pacific region became increasingly significant through the 1970s and into the 1980s, the relationship was marked by an embedded psychological or cognitive...

  12. VIII Canada, Asian Values and Human Rights: Helping the Tigers to Set Themselves Free
    (pp. 167-186)

    Canada is a crucial player in the debate raging in Asia as to whether universal conceptions of human rights are incompatible with “Asian Values.” The most fervent promoters of this debate are the former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, the present Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad² and, more recently, President Jiang Zemin of the People’s Republic of China.³ Except for China, the main protagonists in the Asian Values debate, Malaysia and Singapore, have formally democratic regimes with elected governments. Their systems are a legacy of the British parliamentary system and, ironically, are run by highly educated,...

  13. IX Tigers, Asian Values and Labour Standards: Promoting a Fairer Global Trade
    (pp. 187-210)

    When Canada assumes the chairmanship of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in 1997, it will do so from a markedly diminished economic standing relative to the Asia Pacific, a region comprising Japan and China as well as the high-performing economies, the so-called Tigers or Dragons. These countries have gained in economic terms, while Canada has lost ground since 1970 as a result of capital and technology movements and shifting comparative advantages in international trade.

    This paper focuses on the underlying factors behind these shifts, and is organized in seven Parts. Following this Introduction, Part II examines trends of income...

  14. X Canada and International Education in the Asia-Pacific Region
    (pp. 211-232)

    The global expansion of merchandise trade and investment since the 1980s has been accompanied by a parallel growth in international educational mobility, especially at the tertiary (university and college) level. This has been reflected in the growing numbers of university and college students going abroad for study, in greatly increased international exchanges and linkages among scholars and researchers, and in the creation of new international mechanisms for the promotion of educational cooperation between academic institutions in different countries. This rapid internationalization of higher education is having a profound impact on the evolution of these university systems, on the economics of...

  15. XI A New Frontier in Multilateralism: Canada and the ASEAN Regional Forum
    (pp. 233-256)

    The establishment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF) in 1994 marks a major turning point in Canada’s diplomatic and security policy toward the Asia Pacific region. As a founding member, Canada’s engagement in the ARF provides it with a new opportunity to strengthen its multilateralist credentials. But this forum is a complex and somewhat unique institution. The manner of its evolution, dictated to a large extent by the perspectives and preferences of its Asian members, may not fit in easily with Canada’s previous experience and expertise in multilateralism, which has been primarily concerned with global...

  16. XII East Asian Arms Build-ups and Regional Security
    (pp. 257-280)

    Canadian foreign policy statements since 1990 have been laced with rhetoric about the need to move beyond a narrow conception of security. “Security has ceased to be something to be achieved unilaterally,” Joe Clark, who was at the time Foreign Minister, told the United Nations General Assembly in September of that year. “Security has ceased to be something to be attained through military means alone. Security has become multi-dimensional and it has become cooperative.”¹ This phrase provided the label for Canada’s most prominent security initiative to date in the Asia Pacific region, the North Pacific Cooperative Security Dialogue, the aim...

  17. XIII Canada and Conflict Resolution in the South China Sea
    (pp. 281-298)

    The “dangerous grounds” warning on navigational charts for the area of rocks and islets in the middle of the South China Sea, collectively known as the Spratly Islands, ensures that mariners avoid the area. However, governments of the region have ignored the warnings and sailed into the Spratlys with conflicting sovereignty claims that, on occasion, have been aggressively pursued and thus created “dangerous grounds” for regional conflict.

    Brunei, Malaysia, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Philippines, Taiwan-China and Vietnam have laid claim to all or some of the islets and rocks in the Spratly Islands region. All of the...

  18. XIV Policy Implications of Canada’s Trade and Investment Linkages With the Asia Pacific
    (pp. 299-322)

    One of the significant features of the global economy in the eighties has been the economic ascendancy of the East Asia region.¹ Spurred by double digit growth rates and rising levels of international economic integration, the regional economy has been the focus of considerable academic attention. Most of the interest, however, has been directed either to the examination of the economic fundamentals which might explain the high growth rates or to the issue of whether or not East Asia’s increasing interdependence developed at the expense of countries outside the region.

    There are a number of studies in the second category...

  19. XV Re-engaging China: Striking a Balance between Trade and Human Rights
    (pp. 323-348)

    On January 25, 1996, Lloyd Axworthy became Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. His appointment was interpreted by some as a move “to shore up support among traditional Liberals who feared that human rights and democratic values were being overlooked in the party’s trade-led foreign policy.”¹ He replaced André Ouellet who had once said that with respect to advancing Canada’s position on human rights internationally, “Canadians can’t be Boy Scouts.” Besides appointing Axworthy, Prime Minister Chrétien chose Art Eggleton to be the new Minister for International Trade and Pierre Pettigrew to be Minister of International Cooperation and La Francophonie. Both Christine...

    (pp. 349-352)