In Between Countries

In Between Countries: Australia, Canada, and the Search for Order in Agricultural Trade

Copyright Date: 1997
Pages: 288
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  • Book Info
    In Between Countries
    Book Description:

    The book explores how and why two self-identified middle powers adopted such distinctive styles in their diplomatic approaches. Focusing on a period of crucial developments in diplomacy, Andrew Cooper analyses the policies of each country, emphasizes distinctive interests and policies, and systematically compares key features of the actions of the two countries.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6686-6
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. Acronyms
    (pp. xiii-2)
  5. 1 Middle Power Commonalities and National Differences
    (pp. 3-26)

    The pairing of Australia and Canada has become a rich source for studies comparing their approaches toward the International Political Economy (IPE). Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye in their influential workPower and Interdependenceused Canadian-United States and Australian-United States relations as case-studies to illustrate some of the major themes of foreign economic policy in the post-1945 era.¹ In terms of substantive policy issues the two countries have been the focus of attention for detailed studies on a wide number of topics, including foreign aid, foreign direct investment, immigration, and economic sanctions.² This interest in matching Australia and Canada has...

  6. 2 Divergent Followership
    (pp. 27-54)

    The roles of Canada and Australia in the post-1945 agricultural trade system have not received the degree of prominence in the IPE literature that they deserve. The focus has almost uniformly been on the core or epicentre of the agricultural trade system. The primary debates have revolved around issues concerned with the form and pattern of American leadership. A common theme throughout is that agricultural trade has become intertwined with the broader set of questions relating to the United States’s will and capacity to provide structural and quality leadership within the global economy. Considerable attention has been paid to the...

  7. 3 Hard and Soft States: The Domestic Context of Agricultural Trade
    (pp. 55-83)

    The switch in focus from an outside-in to an inside-out analysis gives a very different perspective on Canadian and Australian approaches to agricultural trade. The impression derived from an externally directed inquiry is one of relative Canadian strength and Australian weakness. The contrasting realities of their location in the international system may be viewed as determining much of the character of their behaviour. Australia’s ability to create an environment conducive to its security and economic well-being was limited by its high degree of reliance on the export of primary produce, its dependence on international markets, and its lack of a...

  8. 4 Hanging Separately: Coping with Uncertainty
    (pp. 84-111)

    Multilateralism remained the first-best option of Canadian and Australian agricultural diplomacy. More interested in reform than defection, Canadian and Australian statecraft continued to be fixed on restoring order in the international trading system during the 1970s and early 1980s. The efforts of these two countries were applied primarily towards coming to terms with changes in the international political economy and reflected in the emergent crisis in agricultural trade. As in the 1950s and 1960s, a central ingredient of this approach was to bring back into line those actors whose interests and values explicitly challenged the shape of the postwar system....

  9. 5 Hanging Together: The Evolution of the Cairns Group
    (pp. 112-142)

    The shift from individual to collective action through the Cairns Group marked a significant transformation in Australian and Canadian economic diplomacy. While sharing common assumptions about the rules of the game, Canada and Australia had worked only loosely with each other in bolstering the operation of the post-1945 international agricultural trade system. The continued erosion of the system in the 1980s, attendant upon the changing nature of U.S. leadership, altered considerably the pattern of followership for these two countries. Departing from the parallelism of the past, Canada and Australia worked to establish a closer form of collaboration in which they...

  10. 6 The Politics of Initiative in Australia
    (pp. 143-174)

    To achieve a more complete understanding of its activist role within the Cairns Group, Australia’s changing place in the international political economy and the dynamics attendant on the management of internal reform must be examined. Australia had historically separated its international and domestic strategies for economic policy. Throughout the Robert Menzies/John McEwen and Malcolm Fraser/Doug Anthony eras, Australia had campaigned vigorously for firmer and more equitable rules in the international agricultural trade system. Yet this commitment to reform did not extend in the same fixed fashion to the domestic arena. Australia’s drive for open trade in the primary sectors of...

  11. 7 The Politics of Accommodation in Canada
    (pp. 175-207)

    International trade policies have become more tightly intertwined with domestic politics in the 1980s and 1990s. State officials in Australia and Canada, as elsewhere, came to the realization in these decades that the pursuit of interests in the IPE depends not only on their actions in the international arena but also on their ability to come to terms with domestic political pressures.¹ The growth of interdependence and the increased incorporation of national economies into both global and regional economies presented new challenges for national economic statecraft,² in that the test of a government’s economic performance became centred on its ability...

  12. 8 Commitment and Convenience
    (pp. 208-224)

    An examination of Canadian and Australian approaches to agricultural trade remains of considerable interest for students of international political economy. In common with the widely accepted notion of the “in between” place of these two countries in the global arena, the starting-point for this examination has been a middle power framework. Despite its lack of analytical conciseness this conceptual tool has considerable value in shedding light on how a selective (and self-selecting) group of secondary powers has attempted to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of the international trading order. By its identification of countries other than those at the...

  13. Notes
    (pp. 225-268)
  14. Index
    (pp. 269-279)