Controversy and Complexity

Controversy and Complexity: Canadian Immigration Policy during the 1980s

Copyright Date: 1995
Pages: 200
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  • Book Info
    Controversy and Complexity
    Book Description:

    After describing the context that prompted the changes enacted in the 1976 Immigration Act, Dirks turns to contemporary immigration: he examines such controversial and complex issues as establishing annual arrivals targets, setting and managing refugee policy, and developing regulatory procedures for handling applicants. Costs and benefits of a universal visa policy, the distinction between refugees and immigrants, the role of the provinces, and the relationship between immigration and demographic issues are considered in depth. Dirks also pays particular attention to the structure of the organization. Bringing his study into this decade, he concludes by focusing on 1993 amendments to the Immigration Act.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6507-4
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
    • 1 Migration: Past and Present
      (pp. 3-8)

      Throughout history, humanity has demonstrated nomadic, restless characteristics. No single factor explains this migratory tendency. Rather, a complex assortment of circumstances and motives contribute to this persistent characteristic of human beings. In general, people have migrated over the ages because of dissatisfaction with prevailing circumstances combined with a somewhat inexplicable sense of optimism that suggests more favourable conditions can be found elsewhere. Stated most simply, human migration takes place because of a variety of push-and-pull forces. While such an explanation is admittedly both incomplete and superficial, it nevertheless identifies the two broad categories of causes and motives.

      Before the development...

    • 2 The Emergence of an Immigration Tradition in Canada
      (pp. 9-16)

      Canada's stature in the twentieth century as a prosperous member of the international state system with a developed economy and a skilled labour force is largely attributable to immigration. Regardless of this, many Canadians of every era have expressed doubts about the customs and characteristics of the newcomers in their midst.

      Europeans intent on establishing permanent settlements in what became Canada first reached this land at the beginning of the seventeenth century. During the next three centuries, Canada's population grew slowly. Estimates suggest that at the time of the British conquest in 1763 the European population stood at approximately 60...

  5. PART TWO The Philosophy and Content of Canadian Immigration Policy
    (pp. 17-18)

    Describing the precise content of contemporary Canadian immigration policy comprehensively in a volume such as this may be a worthwhile or even ideal objective, but is impossible to achieve in practice. Identifying all the features of any complex, dynamic social policy, which is never static, raises a host of obstacles. Immigration constitutes such a policy area.

    Canada's immigration policy and regulations exist in a combined domestic and global environment that is continuously changing. Thus, between the time this manuscript is completed and the time it is readily available to readers, the factors that dictate the specific content of policy and...

  6. PART THREE The Impact of Structure and Bureaucracy on Policy Making and Implementation
    (pp. 123-126)

    The foregoing chapters have briefly outlined the causes of international migration and analysed the objectives and content of Canada’s immigration policy during the years the 1976ImmigrationActhas been in force. This discussion has sought to identify the goals of immigration programs as well as the many considerations that frequently complicate their implementation. Except for the chapter analysing the refugee status determination machinery, this study has not as yet provided any detailed picture of the structures, mechanisms, and processes through which immigration policy is actually implemented and programs managed. It is one thing to identify and explain the underlying...

  7. Epilogue
    (pp. 158-162)

    As this study emphasizes, changing domestic and global realities have fuelled demands for an immigration policy and managerial procedures more capable of responding to them. Since the late 19705 the federal government has claimed that its changes to policy and its new administrative mechanisms were designed to do just that. Yet, despite tinkering with both policy and program content and restructuring the immigration apparatus, including the troubled refugee status determination machinery success in achieving immigration policy objectives has eluded authorities. By the early 1990s officials had made all the modifications possible under the prevailing legislation, without keeping pace with changed...

  8. APPENDIX A: Immigrants and Refugees Granted Permanent in Canada, January 1980-August 1990
    (pp. 165-165)
  9. APPENDIX B: Application Processing Times from Receipt to Final Disposition (days)
    (pp. 166-166)
  10. APPENDIX C: Actual Arrivals (All Categories) versus Targets
    (pp. 166-166)
  11. APPENDIX D: Immigration Program Organization Chart, 1983
    (pp. 167-167)
  12. APPENDIX E: Immigration Program Organization Chart, 1990
    (pp. 168-168)
  13. APPENDIX F: Ministers of Employment and Immigration, September 1976 - November 1993
    (pp. 169-170)
  14. Notes
    (pp. 171-180)
  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 181-184)
  16. Index
    (pp. 185-188)