Industrial Transformation and Challenge in Australia and Canada

Industrial Transformation and Challenge in Australia and Canada

ROGER HAYTER
PETER D. WILDE
Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 351
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt802gs
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  • Book Info
    Industrial Transformation and Challenge in Australia and Canada
    Book Description:

    Canadian and Australian economic geographers provide a comparative analysis of the economies of the two countries as both nations attempt to redefine their roles in a rapidly changing world.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-8238-5
    Subjects: Geography

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-x)
    Roger Hayter and Peter Wilde
  4. 1. INTRODUCTION: INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION IN A CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY
    (pp. 1-6)
    Peter Wilde and Roger Hayter

    Industrial transformation has been the hallmark of the past two decades at global‚ national and local scales (Amin and Goddard, 1986; Chapman 1987; Freeman, 1986; and Scott and Storper, 1986). Within the context of a series of economic shocks including several recessions, a period of stagflation, two energy crises and a depression, there have been major changes in the technology and organization of production, transport, communications and marketing. These changes, intimately associated with remarkably increased levels of geographic mobility of money capital, have enhanced global thinking and are contributing towards a rapidly evolving division of labour among and within regions....

  5. Perspective
    • 2. THE CHANGING PACIFIC ECONOMY: CHALLENGE TO THE POST-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY
      (pp. 9-24)
      T.G. McGee

      While I cannot lay claim to expertise in the field of industrial geography‚ at least I have experienced in a rather oblique and protected manner the effects of the processes of industrial and economic change in Australia‚ Canada and New Zealand. This chapter offers what might be called‚ in the jargon of the day‚ “the contextual setting”‚ for these processes but what I would prefer to call in my own “peasant” idiom a background paper to the more specific issues raised in subsequent chapters.

      The central issue of this chapter‚ and in some ways of the entire volume‚ is intimated...

    • 3. THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY IN TRANSITION
      (pp. 25-42)
      G.J.R Linge

      This chapter is divided into four substantive sections. The first briefly describes the development of the political economy of Australia‚ including the all-important division of responsibilities between the state and the federal governments. The second broadly covers the events which have shaped the Australian economy since the 1930s and have led to a new focus on countries around the Pacific Rim‚ especially in southeast Asia. It is noted how this‚ in turn‚ has drawn attention to two related dilemmas. One is the changing tradeoff between the high levels of protection enjoyed by Australian manufacturing (by tariffs‚ quotas and other means)...

    • 4. CANADA’S INTERNAL CORE-PERIPHERY STRUCTURE
      (pp. 43-54)
      David Walker

      This chapter reviews elements of Canada’s regional structure‚ examines recent trends and changes concerning Canada’s space-economy, and contributes to the debate on appropriate economic and regional policy for the country. Reference is made particularly to employment change‚ migration patterns‚ and income levels‚ which are variables traditionally used in assessing inteiprovincial performance. In addition‚ a consideration of ownership changes and the operations Canada’s corporate elite is offered. The conceptual framework underlying this discussion is Friedmann’s (1972) view of core-periphery relations‚ which stresses the element of domination and control by a core over a periphery.

      Canada is a large country that grew...

    • 5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SERVICES: AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVES
      (pp. 55-70)
      John V. Langdale

      The impact of new information technologies on the global economy has been widely discussed. The argument generally presented is that we live in a global village and that the constraints of distance over communication have been largely eliminated. Furthermore‚ national institutions are becoming more heavily influenced by international forces. This global village argument‚ while attractive‚ is simplistic and even incorrect in a number of important respects. Changes taking place in the international information economy are quite complex. Rather than leading to a greater international orientation and uniformity of national institutions‚ the impacts of new information technologies are likely to produce...

  6. Dimensions of Employment and Social Change
    • 6. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES ON REGIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS IN CANADA DURING THE 1981-84 RECESSION
      (pp. 73-92)
      Glen Norcliffe and Donna Smith Featherstone

      This chapter is concerned with foreign influences on patterns of regional unemployment in Canada during the recent recession. It will be shown that an economy as open as Canada’s‚ the particular way in which a region responded to the global recession of the early 1980s was influenced by factors both internal and external to each region. The degree to which a regional economy fared better or worse than the Canadian average during the recession was directly related‚ in many cases‚ to a region’s employment specializations‚ and to foreign trade performance in those specializations. This is not to dismiss local factors...

    • 7. LABOUR MARKETS, HOUSING MARKETS AND THE CHANGING FAMILY IN CANADA’S SERVICE ECONOMY
      (pp. 93-108)
      David Ley and Caroline Mills

      Perhaps it should not be a surprise that in a century labelled by philosophers as the age of analysis‚ and in a society in which specialization has been taken to extreme lengths‚ that social science has opted more often for fragmentation than for coherence‚ for dividing rather than for integrating. So we find an economic geography of production‚ of the workplace‚ and a social geography of consumption‚ of the homeplace‚ with only the most slender of literatures to bring them together‚ other than the literature of the sledgehammer where one is reduced to the other. We find an increasingly sophisticated...

    • 8. THE IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CHANGE FOR REGIONAL WORK FORCE STRUCTURES AND CHARACTERISTICS IN AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 109-124)
      John McKay

      An important problem facing geography is to explain the complex ways in which changes at the global level have an impact on characteristics at the local or regional level. We need to understand both the importance of world systems influences and the ways in which these forces intersect with local interests. As Timberlake argues in his introduction to a volume on urbanization in the world economy:

      The claim is not that world-system processes determine everything. Rather‚ the fundamental lesson is that social scientists can no longer study macrolevel social change without taking into account world-system processes. Specifically‚ processes such as...

    • 9. ADAPTATION TO CHANGE AND UNCERTAINTY: THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 125-138)
      D.J. Walmsley

      The central thesis of this chapter is that social and economic changes within Australia‚ coupled with changes in the world order‚ particularly in the industrial structures of those countries with which Australia interacts economically and politically‚ are leading to what can be thought of as a “turbulent environment.” Exactly how Australia copes with this turbulence will have a major influence on the well-being of the nation and its inhabitants and particularly on whether Australia remains a relatively affluent pluralistic society or becomes transformed into something quite different.

      It is appropriate to begin this chapter by looking at the nature of...

  7. Issues in Resource Development
    • 10. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: CANADIAN PERSPECTIVES
      (pp. 141-158)
      Thomas Gunton and John Richards

      During the last several decades‚ there has been considerable debate on the role of natural resources in regional development. Advocates of comparative advantage argue that regions with a plentiful supply of natural resources such as western Canada should concentrate on what they do best‚ produce natural resources. Dependency theorists on the other hand argue that the production of natural resources can never lay the foundations for a healthy economy. The preferred alternative‚ they believe‚ is to develop a diversified manufacturing base. In our opinion pursuit of regional comparative advantage is a more persuasive argument. The realization of regional comparative advantage...

    • 11. INTERNATIONALIZATION AND THE SPATIAL RESTRUCTURING OF BLACK COAL PRODUCTION IN AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 159-174)
      Katherine Gibson

      Over the past few decades the mode of black coal production in Australia has been radically transformed under the various impacts of international capital. Between 1970 and 1980‚ world output of black coal increased by 29 percent and exports increased by 52 percent as coal was heralded as the “bridge to the future” that would enable the developed world to ride out oil shortages until newer energy sources‚ such as nuclear and solar energy‚ could be expanded (WOCOL‚ 1980). The biggest increases in production came from non-traditional exporters such as South Africa and Australia (Rutledge and Wright‚ 1985‚ p. 307)....

    • 12. INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING AND THE AUSTRALIAN FOOD INDUSTRY: CORPORATE STRATEGY AND GLOBAL ECONOMY
      (pp. 175-194)
      R.H. Fagan and D.C. Rich

      This paper analyses the Australian food industry to explore the dynamics of industrial restructuring in the decade or so since the mid-1970s. Both the industry’s geography and its organizational structure are examined. The analysis is both extensive‚ in which sectoral and spatial changes are identified‚ and intensive‚ in which individual corporate strategies are examined in a search for underlying processes which can be generalized (Sayer and Morgan‚ 1985). Detailed study of corporate strategies for the largest firms in the food industry reveals the relationship between regional industrial change and internationalization of capital. The geographically uneven impacts of industrial change in...

    • 13. RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND THE EVOLUTION OF NEW ZEALAND FORESTRY COMPANIES
      (pp. 195-208)
      Richard LeHeron

      The February 1987 C$385m takeover bid by Fletcher Challenge Limited (FCL) for British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. has made the company‚ following Canadian government approval‚ the world’s second largest producer of both newsprint and pulp. A year before‚ in a different corner of the Pacific Rim‚ Carter Holt Harvey (CHH)‚ another New Zealand forestry corporation‚ purchased into a Chilean joint venture with Maderas Prensudas Cholguan SA and Forestal Cholguan SA. On one level the takeovers represent the latest development in an extraordinary series of competitive moves by several New Zealand forestry companies‚ now radically restructured from the small companies that...

  8. Trade and Industrial Policy Issues
    • 14. THE CANADIAN ECONOMY AND TRADE: A GEOGRAPHER’S ASSESSMENT OF THE MACDONALD ROYAL COMMISSION REPORT
      (pp. 211-226)
      Iain Wallace

      The ambiguities of Canada’s nationhood do not go away: they recycle. The tensions of accommodating the interests and sensibilities of two founding peoples and of significantly different regional cultures and economies‚ and those that arise from living next door to the world’s still dominant power combine to ensure that the direction and legitimacy of national policies are only rarely not active sources of domestic political friction. The particular focus of contention shifts over time‚ but the “resolutions” which allow this redirection of energy are never final. Neither the rejection of separation from the rest of Canada by the electorate of...

    • 15. CANADA’S TRADE AND INVESTMENT LINKS IN THE PACIFIC REGION
      (pp. 227-238)
      Roger Hayter

      This chapter examines Canada’s search for a more appropriate role in the world trade of industrial goods‚ particularly with respect to participation in the Pacific region. By way of context‚ the evolution of Canadian thinking regarding trade policy is briefly outlined. Next‚ Canada’s trade relations with Pacific economies since 1971 are noted and then related to international investment patterns. The last part of the chapter focusses on the relationships between trade and investment. From a policy perspective‚ it is suggested that more effective participation by Canada in the Pacific region‚ or in the global economy at large‚ will require major...

    • 16. IMPLICATIONS OF PACIFIC INDUSTRIALIZATION FOR AUSTRALIAN STRUCTURAL CHANGE
      (pp. 239-256)
      Peter D. Wilde

      Looking back from the start of the 1990s‚ it appears that the 1970s was a decade when global transformation and its national repercussions took Australians by surprise‚ while the 1980s was a period when the nation tried to come to terms with change only to find as the decade advanced that the rules themselves were changing and that continued transformation was needed to keep abreast of new realities. Nowhere was this changing perspective more apparent than in the nation’s international trading and diplomatic affairs‚ which saw an accelerating shift of focus from Britain and other European countries to Australia’s more...

    • 17. WHITHER REGIONAL POLICY? AUSTRALIAN AND CANADIAN PERSPECTIVES
      (pp. 257-274)
      Peter McLoughlin and James B. Cannon

      Regional policy is a relative newcomer to the public policy arena. It gained prominence during the long economic boom in the post-World War II period. As a new claimant for public sector resources‚ regional policy met resistance from older entrenched policy establishments. However‚ during this period of public sector expansion‚ the political commitment to regional policy was strong enough for it to win grudging acceptance. Nevertheless‚ the relationship between regional policy and older more established policy fields remained uneasy. In particular‚ the territorial orientation of regional policy often resulted in conflicts with other policy fields which tended to have more...

    • 18. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN CANADA AND AUSTRALIA: TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND SUPPORT FOR SMALL FIRMS
      (pp. 275-296)
      John N.H. Britton

      This chapter compares the policies of Canada and Australia as they address the problems of manufacturing industry and examines in detail the industrial initiatives that have been taken to assist technological development‚ especially through the small firm sector. As a first step‚ the broad industrial‚ technological‚ and political pressures that bear on these two economies are reviewed because they set the agenda for the policies and programs that have been put in place.

      Australia and Canada have not been successful in developing policies with significant impact on either the adverse effects of multinationals operating in the manufacturing sector or the...

    • 19. CONCLUDING STATEMENT
      (pp. 297-300)
      Roger Hayter and Peter D. Wilde

      An important assumption‚ albeit an implicit one‚ underlying the workshop upon which this volume is based is that nation-states are valid units of investigation and that Australia and Canada‚ in particular‚ comprise internally coherent politically fimctioning regions or‚ to use the term recently preferred Scott and Storper (1986)‚ “territories.” In practice‚ as the contents of this book reveal‚ and as was made abundantly clear during the proceedings of the workshop‚ this may be the case‚ although increasingly powerful global processes are persistently undermining the assumption. In particular there is concern about the effectiveness of Australia and Canada‚ as medium-sized nation-states‚...

  9. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 301-304)
  10. REFERENCES
    (pp. 305-340)