Canada Among Nations, 2005

Canada Among Nations, 2005: Splitting Images

Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 240
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  • Book Info
    Canada Among Nations, 2005
    Book Description:

    Canada Among Nations is produced by The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University and The Centre for International Governance Innovation.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7331-4
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Fen Osler Hampson

    Split Imagesis the twenty-first consecutive annual instalment of theCanada Among Nationsseries. The series was founded by two professors in the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University: Brian Tomlin and Maureen Molot. The first volume in the series, which was subtitled 1984: ATime of Transitionbrought together some of Canada’s leading international affairs experts to review international events and Canadian foreign policy in the calendar year. From the outset, however, the volume was never intended to be merely a review of recent policy initiatives. Nor was it the editors’ intention to offer a comprehensive package...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    Andrew F. Cooper and Dane Rowlands
  5. Acronyms
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. 1 A State of Disconnects – The Fracturing of Canadian Foreign Policy
    (pp. 3-20)

    Canadian foreign policy is going through a period of profound anxiety, critique, and reconsideration. All of the accepted images of why and how Canada should play an international role have been eroded if not completely shattered. Having been built up as one of the major sources of national unity and collective pride there is now a pervasive sense of disconnect as well as fragility about Canada’s role in the world.

    To capture the essence of this dissonance we have chosen the titleSplit Images,an allusion both to the glaring divide between different visions of foreign policy, and to photography....

    • 2 Reality and Canadian Foreign Policy
      (pp. 23-46)

      Putting the two notions of reality and Canadian foreign policy into the same sentence is a controversial move. For many who study and write about Canada’s role in the world, the relationship is best characterized through an “or” and not an “and.” Reality and Canadian foreign policy stand in opposition, rather than in harmony.

      I will argue that this perception can and must be overcome. Doing so demands a more robust analysis of changes in the global context - and what they mean for Canada - as well as a greater willingness to articulate a strategic vision and a set...

    • 3 The Perennial Challenge: Managing Canada-US Relations
      (pp. 47-62)

      In managing relations with the United States, the perennial challenge for any Canadian political leader is to find the right balance between a level of trust and engagement with Washington that anchors our substantial economic and security interests and a global role that accentuates distinct Canadian aspirations. The two are not incompatible but, over the years, various approaches have been attempted with equally varying degrees of consistency and achievement.

      Under Pierre Trudeau, Canada identified the “Third Option” as a middle course between getting closer to or further from the United States. His government sought counter-weights to temper the growing economic...

    • 4 A New Continental Consensus? The Bush Doctrine, the War on Terrorism and the Future of US-Canada Security Relations
      (pp. 63-78)

      So, George W. Bush was right about Iraq. As a result, a new foreign policy consensus is emerging in the United States. Where does that leave Canada in terms of the future of its defence and security relations with the US? In a pretty good position. A consensus between both countries is quite possible, about both the pursuit of the Global War on Terrorism abroad and continental defence at home.

      The very suggestion that Canada’s situation with regard to security relations with the US might be favourable is likely to prompt scepticism from both the left and the right. For...

    • 5 Looking Enviously Down Under? The Australian Experience and Canadian Foreign Policy
      (pp. 79-92)

      During the debate over Canada’s international policy in 2004, the Australian government of John Howard was often held up as a model for Canadian foreign and defence policy makers. A number of commentators pointed to Australia as an example of a government which had made a number of crucial strategic decisions in global policy. For example, theNational Postran a series of feature articles in October 2004 under the title “Australia Rules” that conveyed the clear implication that the Canadian government of Paul Martin should follow the Australian lead (Goodspeed, 2004; Taylor, 2004; Wattie, 2004). In a similar vein,...

    • 6 Plurilateral Multilateralism: Canada’s Emerging International Policy?
      (pp. 93-114)

      Derek Burney recently noted that no country “has reviewed, pondered and consulted about its foreign policy more often, and more openly, than Canada” (2,005: 1-2). He surmised that this may be an indication of “an undercurrent of self-doubt in Canada about our role and place in the world” (Ibid). If that is true, what a complete about face from the “Golden Age” of Canadian diplomacy under the leadership of Lester B. Pearson who won a Nobel Peace Prize for his bold and confident contributions on the international stage. Like Burney, one is left to wonder whether the more recent perpetual...

    • 7 “Friends at a Distance”: Reframing Canada’s Strategic Priorities after the Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy
      (pp. 115-134)

      The Bush revolution has dramatically changed the practice and principles of US foreign policy. Its commitment to regime change when needed, unilateralism when necessary and a disregard for international law when appropriate have opened a new page in global politics.¹ No country, no ally, no neighbour can be indifferent to the reframing of US priorities (Kagan, 2,003).

      In recent years, the US has consistently shown its support for international law to be conditional, preferring to keep its options open, picking and choosing between security and human rights at its own convenience. At the United Nations, a sea-change is under way...

    • 8 A BRICSAM Strategy for Canada?
      (pp. 137-149)

      The term BRICSAM denotes a group comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN), and Mexico. These countries have recently been the focus of major research projects, such as Goldman Sachs 2003 study,Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050, and the Centre for International Governance Innovation's (CIGI) BRICSAM project. While membership in this group may appear somewhat arbitrary,¹ group members are essentially the set of more heavily populated, low and middleincome countries that are either rapidly growing or seem poised to achieve moderate to high rates of growth in the near...

    • 9 Canada and Global China: Engagement Recalibrated
      (pp. 150-168)

      The productive might of China’s vast low-cost manufacturing machine, along with the swelling appetites of its billion-plus consumers, have turned China’s people into what is arguably the greatest natural resource on the planet. How the Chinese and the rest of the world use that resource will shape our economy and every other economy in the world as powerfully as American industrialization and expansion have over the last hundred years (Fishman, 2005: 7).

      China has mattered deeply to Canadians for 130 years despite vast asymmetries in power, influence, and size, and abiding differences in culture, values, political system, and level of...

    • 10 Re-engaging India: Upgrading the Canada-India Bazaar Relationship
      (pp. 169-184)

      The new realities of the twenty-first century present significant challenges as well as opportunities for Canada. Geography, history, national security and economic imperatives will continue to keep Canada largely focused on managing its relationship with the US.However, just as the US responds to the shifts in global power balances brought about by the recent economic achievements of a number of large, fast-growing, developing countries, Canada too will have to take a fresh look at its relations with a number of them and redefine its policies and priorities in accord with the emerging opportunities (see Whalley, this volume). If Canada does...

    • 11 Canada-Russia Relations: A Strategic Partnership?
      (pp. 185-202)

      Canada’s recently released International Policy Statement (IPS) (Canada, 2,005) includes among its new foreign policy priorities the need to realign bilateral relationships and develop novel networks outside North America. Russia, alongside China, India, and Brazil is generally considered one of the emerging global actors to be targeted, and as a result, warrants special attention in the light of growing linkages and mutual interests.

      A country of 17 million sq km and 145 million people, holding claims to zo percent of the world's fresh water resources and to 40 percent of the circumpolar Arctic territory, Russia is a full G8 member...

    • 12 Canada and Brazil: Confrontation or Cooperation?
      (pp. 203-222)

      By any measure Brazil is a country of considerable, and rising, importance.In terms of area it is the largest country in South America, and third largest in the hemisphere, after Canada and the US. With 176 million people, it is the most populous country in South America, and second only in the region to the US. Its GDP is US$492 billion (World Bank, 2004), the largest in South America and fourth largest in the hemisphere. Although it also has the most unequal income distribution in the hemisphere, increasing stability and growth have brought masses of new consumers: individuals who are...

    • 13 Trade, Commerce, or Diplomacy? Canada and the New Politics of International Trade
      (pp. 225-244)

      The very first foreign policy decision made by Paul Martin as Prime Minister in December 2003 — to create, a Department of International Trade, separate from the Department of Foreign Affairs -was roundly criticized. Since the announcement of this imposed divorce (after twenty-one years of happy marriage), a significant number of Canada's foreign policy observers and experts have vehemently spoken out against what quickly became a symbol of the new government's lack of judgment and vision in the field of international policy. As a result, the two bills that would have formally provided the framework for the creation of two distinct...

    • 14 Split Images and Serial Affairs: Reviews, Reorganizations, and Parliamentary Roles
      (pp. 245-270)

      Canada’s parliament is a paradoxical actor with a split image; its powers and potential are belied by perceptions of little actual ability to effect change, especially in the traditionally executive-dominated areas of foreign and defence policy. Moreover, even as demands have increased to address “democratic deficits” and return power to Parliament, it has become more regionally fractured, with different parties holding majorities of seats in Quebec, the West, Ontario and the Atlantic provinces.

      In terms of the conduct of international affairs, the formal parliamentary reviews of recent times have raised democratic expectations, yet delivered underwhelming results. The fact that such...

    • 15 New Bottles for Old Wine: Implementing the International Policy Statement
      (pp. 271-282)

      Veterans from Canada’s “Golden Age” of diplomacy would have little difficulty in comprehending and supporting the priorities of the 2005International Policy Statement(IPS). As in 1950, with North Korea’s attack on South Korea, 11 September 2001 was a bolt from the blue and in each case the response has been dramatically increased military spending and a new emphasis on national security. As in 1950, too, the United States is using unsurpassed military power to confront worldwide threats and the unilateralism of American decisions (led by General Douglas MacArthur in 1951 and by President George W. Bush today) worries many...

  10. Contributors
    (pp. 283-286)
  11. Index
    (pp. 287-295)