Euripides' Use of Psychological Terminology

Euripides' Use of Psychological Terminology

Copyright Date: 2000
Pages: 232
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  • Book Info
    Euripides' Use of Psychological Terminology
    Book Description:

    Sullivan discusses each term separately, gathering them from Euripides' seventeen extant tragedies and from fragments of other plays. She begins with a broad look at how both earlier and contemporary poets used the various terms, moving on to a detailed discussion of Euripides' own usage, from his most often used phr_n to his new use of psych_.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6843-3
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-9)

    This study will discuss how Euripides (c. 484-406 B.C.) refers to psychological terminology. Its specific aim is to illustrate how his usage of psychic terms resembles that of earlier and contemporary poets and also Aeschylus and Sophocles and how it differs from it. These poets will include Homer, Hesiod, the lyric and elegiac poets, Pindar and Bacchylides. Comparison will also be made with theHomeric Hymns.The book will not compare Euripides’ usage with that of the Presocratics, the fifth-century historians, other tragedians of the fifth century, or writers of comedy. A comparison of Euripides with prose usage of the...

  7. 2 Phrēn in the Tragedies: Part One
    (pp. 10-30)

    Of the psychic terms,phrēnappears most often in Euripides, as it does in Aeschylus¹ and Sophocles.² In the seventeen tragedies and fragments we encounterphrēn160 times,nous43,prapides5,thumos30,kardìa35,kear3, andpsychē117.Phrēnandphrenesappear in all seventeen tragedies. Since there are so many instances ofphrēn, they will be treated in two chapters. Our discussion will attempt to show why Euripides, like Aeschylus and Sophocles, used this particular psychic term so often.³

    Frequently Euripides usesphrēnin ways that resemble those of earlier and contemporary poets and of both...

  8. 3 Phrēn in the Tragedies: Part Two
    (pp. 31-44)

    In this chapter we shall examine the remaining instances ofphrēn. Some of these are traditional and contemporary; some are new. We shall look too at the various images ofphrēnandphrenesthat Euripides introduces.

    In earlier and contemporary poetsphrēnis associated with moral activity in several ways. People can behave well and admirably inphrenes.¹People can also display negative moral behaviour inphrenes.²Pindar and Bacchylides in particular connectphreneswith moral activity. They relatephrenesto holiness,³ justice,⁴ and attitudes towards wealth (prosperity).⁵

    Aeschylus likewise relatesphrenesto different categories of moral behaviour. First, holiness....

  9. 4 Nous and Prapides in the Tragedies
    (pp. 45-58)

    In this chapter we shall look at the instances ofnousandprapidesin the plays and fragments of Euripides. We have several instances ofnousbut only five ofprapides.

    In the plays and fragments of Euripides that we havenousappears quite often.¹ It occurs 43 times, more thanthumos(30) orkardia(35) but significantly fewer times thanphrēn(160) orpsychē(117). In the seven extant plays of Sophocles we find 38 references tonous, in those of Aeschylus, only 3.Nousappears in most plays of Euripides but not in theAle., EL, Held., HF,...

  10. 5 Thumos in the Tragedies
    (pp. 59-70)

    In this chapter we shall examine how Euripides refers tothumos.This psychic entity appears 30 times, similar in frequency tonous(43) andkardia(35) but far less thanphrēn(160). It occurs in thirteen tragedies; it is not found in theHel., Ion, IT,orTr.As before, we shall discuss in particular how traditional or new Euripides’ usage is.

    Euripides shows usthumosas a psychic entity with a broad range of function.¹ In this usage Euripides resembles traditional and contemporary poets.

    And. 1072.As the Messenger arrives to announce the death of Neoptolemus, Peleus says: “alas,...

  11. 6 Kardia and Kear in the Tragedies
    (pp. 71-82)

    In this chapter we shall discuss two words for “heart” in Euripides:kardia¹andkear.²In Euripidesētoris not found in the extant tragedies and fragments, just as it rarely occurs in other Greek tragedy.³ Here we see quite a change from Homer and Hesiod, whereētoris more common than eitherkardiaorkear.⁴ Kardiabecomes more common thanētorin the lyric and elegiac poets, butētorstill remains prominent.⁵ With regard tokardiaandkear‚Aeschylus refers tokardia30 times andkear7 times. Sophocles mentionskardia6 times andkear5 times.

    In Euripides...

  12. 7 Psychē: Traditional Uses
    (pp. 83-93)

    In many instances Euripides refers topsychēin ways quite new. He also refers to it in traditional ways. Like Sophocles, who introduces several new uses ofpsychē, Euripides to an even greater degree mentions an extended range of meaning of this psychic term. Aeschylus refers topsychē13 times, always in traditional ways. Sophocles mentionspsychē35 times, 14 in traditional ways but 21 in new ways. Euripides speaks ofpsychē117 times.¹Psychēappears in all of the tragedies. In 61 passages Euripides placespsychēin traditional contexts; in 56 he places it in new contexts. In this...

  13. 8 Psychē: Euripidean Uses
    (pp. 94-112)

    In this chapter we shall examine new ways in which Euripides refers topsychē. As mentioned at the beginning of chapter 7,psychēbetween the time of Homer and the fifth century gradually appears as a psychological agent in the living person.¹ Three factors are important in this appearance. First,psychēseems to have slowly absorbed functions ascribed earlier to other psychic entities, namely tophrēnand especially tothumosandkardia.²Second, when Homer speaks ofpsychēas “shade of the dead,” he ascribes a range of function to it. The “unburied” shade can recognize a living person, speak,...

  14. 9 Conclusion
    (pp. 113-122)

    In the chapters above we have examined Euripides’ use of psychological terminology. Like earlier and contemporary poets and like Aeschylus and Sophocles, he describes psychological activity in terms of multiple psychic entities. In the seventeen extant tragedies and fragments Euripides mentionsphrēn, nous, prapides, thumos, kardia, kear,andpsychē‚seven different psychic entities.¹ In this chapter we shall give an overview of these psychic entities, concluding with general observations on Euripides’ use of them.

    The following tables, based on the discussion presented in chapters 2-8, illustrate the range of function of the different psychic entities.

    These tables show the range...

  15. APPENDIX A An Overview of the Psychic Terms
    (pp. 123-154)
  16. APPENDIX B Psychic Terms in Each Tragedy
    (pp. 155-177)
  17. APPENDIX C Adjectives and Participles with Psychic Terms
    (pp. 178-185)
  18. APPENDIX D Cognate Verbs, Adverbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
    (pp. 186-195)
  19. APPENDIX E Hēpar and Splanchna
    (pp. 196-198)
  20. Notes
    (pp. 199-218)
  21. Selected Bibliography
    (pp. 219-228)
  22. Index of Passages Discussed
    (pp. 229-232)
  23. General Index
    (pp. 233-234)