McGill Medicine

McGill Medicine: The Second Half Century, 1885-1936

Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 336
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  • Book Info
    McGill Medicine
    Book Description:

    McGill Medicine is also the story of the doctors and administrators who made all this happen: visionaries such as Principal Sir Arthur Currie and Dr C.F. Martin, who shepherded the concept of full-time faculty through the various approval processes of the school; Dr J.C. Meakins, who became, in 1924, the first full-time professor of medicine; and Dr Wilder Penfield, the founder and first director of the Montreal Neurological Institute, among many others.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7316-1
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Illustrations
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. xv-1)

    Volume 1ofMcGill Medicine, The First Half Century, 1829-1885,described the evolution of medical teaching at McGill University. Volume 2 continues the narrative for the second half century ending in 1936, which coincides with the retirement of Charles Ferdinand Martin, the Faculty of Medicine’s first full-time dean.

    Medical teaching at McGill began on 29 June 1829, but its origins be traced back to 1801 when the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was established to promote Protestant education in Lower Canada. The Royal Institution languished for ten years until McGill, who had made a fortune in the fur trade,...

  7. 1 Period of Expansion, 1885-1901
    (pp. 3-50)

    In 1885 McGill University was on the verge of a period of unprecedented growth in its scientific facilities that would continue until after 1910. By the turn of the century the university had added four science buildings, a library, an agricultural college, and a women’s college; the Medical Building had been enlarged twice.² As the teaching facilities expanded, more students could be accommodated, and the enrolment in the medical school increased. In 1872 there were 154 students in the Faculty of Medicine, 232 in 1884, and over 400 by 1900.

    The construction and development of scientific facilities on the McGill...

  8. 2 Planting the Seeds for Change, 1901-14
    (pp. 51-80)

    Roddick attended his first faculty meeting as dean in January 1902.² He was professor of surgery, chairman of the Royal Victoria’s medical board, and a member of the Canadian Parliament for the St Antoine District of Montreal. He had given up operative surgery in 1893, partly because he had dermatitis from antiseptic solutions, but also because he was busy in Ottawa promoting his “Roddick Bill.” It’s aim was to establish a dominion registry for Canadian doctors so that they could move between provinces without taking addition qualifying examinations.

    The first major development that required the new dean’s attention concerned a...

  9. 3 World War I and the Early Postwar Years, 1914-22
    (pp. 81-109)

    At the turn of the century, imperialism was a popular ideology, and there were numerous imperialist spokesmen at McGill. Behind British imperialism lay the belief that the moral, educational, and political development of Great Britain should be extended to the underdeveloped world, including Canada. It was the justification for the colonial policies of Britain and was supported by two generations that flourished during the second half of the nineteenth century and up to World War I. (A similar situation was occurring in the United States at the time that Theodore Roosevelt was president.) Kipling wrote about “the white man’s burden”...

  10. 4 The Charles F. Martin Years, 1923-36
    (pp. 110-134)

    In June 1923 the university governors appointed Charles F. Martin as the first full-time dean of the medical faculty and put him in a position of power so that he could get his projects done.² Martin and Principal Currie were leaders and decision-makers, and their combined efforts brought a great deal of progress to the medical school. One of their first projects was to negotiate funding for reform in the Faculty of Medicine.

    Jonathan C. Meakins (fig. 51) had been a promising resident under Martin at the Royal Victoria Hospital and was appointed to the McGill teaching staff in 1911....

  11. 5 Pre-Clinical Subjects
    (pp. 135-150)

    As professor and chairman of the anatomy department from 1883 to 1913, Francis Shepherd lectured to the medical students from 9:00 to 10:00 A.M. five days a week throughout the academic year. He stressed the importance of dissection, and after his lectures he visited the dissection room with his demonstrators. In the 188os the medical students spent up to five hours a day in the dissecting room, including evening sessions. In 1894 when the academic year was lengthened from six to nine months, the evening sessions in the dissection room were discontinued.³

    After 1880 when Shepherd gained surgical experience, he...

  12. 6 Medicine and Medical Specialties
    (pp. 151-170)

    By 1885 Robert Palmer Howard had been professor of medicine since 1860 and dean of the medical faculty since 1882. He lectured on the theory and practice of medicine at the Medical Building from Monday to Friday at 4:00 P.M. and gave clinical lectures and presentations at the Montreal General on Monday, Friday, and Saturday from 12:45 to 1:45 or 2:00 P.M. His academic and pathology-oriented approach to medicine made the department exciting. Most of the students read Austin Flint’s (1812-86)Principles and Practice of Medicine,first published in 1866. It went into seven editions and was the leading textbook...

  13. 7 Surgery and Surgical Specialties
    (pp. 171-190)

    Prior to 1882 the attending doctors at the Montreal General were generalists. If one of their patients required an operation, they did the operation. If the patient died, they might do a post-mortem examination. The first separation of medicine and surgery occurred in 1882 when Thomas Roddick limited his practice to surgery and George Ross specialized in medicine. Some of the hospital’s attending staff continued to practise medicine and surgery, but with the development of antisepsis, better anesthesia, and new surgical procedures, the generalists who practised general medicine and performed surgery disappeared from the McGill teaching hospitals by the end...

  14. 8 Other Subjects
    (pp. 191-195)

    From 1871 the medical school curriculum included a course on hygiene that dealt with community rather than individual health. George Ross, junior a member of the medical faculty, was the first professor of hygiene. It was a lecture course, and the appointment as professor of hygiene was considered “entry level,” since it was more poorly paid and had less prestige than one of the major courses in the medical school curriculum.¹ The first few professors of hygiene had no particular training or interest in the subject and lectured using one of the standard textbooks.

    Gradually, the hygiene course increased in...

  15. 9 Governance of the Medical Faculty, 1885-1936
    (pp. 196-200)

    The evolution of the Faculty of Medicine from 1885 to 1936 required close cooperation between the faculty, the university, and the teaching hospitals. In 1885 these included the Montreal General and the Montreal Maternity Hospital; by 1936 the Royal Victoria, the Children’s Memorial Hospital (later the Montreal Children’s Hospital), the Verdun Protestant Hospital for the Insane, and the Alexandra Hospital for Infectious Diseases had been added. Although the hospitals were independent bodies with separate governing boards and at times with interests that conflicted with those of the McGill medical faculty, for the most part the university and the hospitals cooperated...

  16. Epilogue
    (pp. 201-206)

    As the 1930s drew to a close, McGilP’s Faculty of Medicine found itself a world still mired in the Depression and on the brink of a second catastrophic world war. While war activities would put the North American economy on a stronger footing, they clearly would place most development activities within medical schools on hold.

    Referring to Ludmerer’s monumental history of medical education¹ in United States and Bonner’s² examination of activities in that country as well as in Europe, one can state with confidence that McGill was just a Canadian medical school. It was completely integrated into fabric of North...

  17. Appendices
    (pp. 207-274)
  18. Notes
    (pp. 275-302)
  19. Selected Bibliography of Books and Articles on McGill University and Medical Faculty
    (pp. 303-306)
  20. Index
    (pp. 307-315)