Current Perspectives on Nutrition and Health

Current Perspectives on Nutrition and Health

Edited by Kenneth K. Carroll
Copyright Date: 1998
Pages: 337
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  • Book Info
    Current Perspectives on Nutrition and Health
    Book Description:

    The contributors explore recent findings on disease patterns, health maintenance, and dietary approaches to reducing the risk of chronic disease. Internationally known experts provide valuable new information on the influence of diet on heart disease, cancer, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis. As well, they examine recent developments in nutrition research in Britain and other European countries and discuss priorities for nutrition research in Canada as set forth in a report recently released by the Ministry of Health.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6703-0
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xii)

    The role of diet in maintenance of health and reduction of the risk of chronic disease is of continuing interest to health care professionals, to those concerned with the production and marketing of food, to governments coping with the escalating cost of health care, and to members of the general public. Research on the relationship between diet and chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and cancer has produced an abundance of data with vast implications for public health. Despite the overlap of interest in the role of diet in these various disorders, scientific meetings...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Contributors
    (pp. xv-xviii)
    • The Evoluation of Nutrition Research in Britain and Other European Countries
      (pp. 3-22)

      The evolution of nutrition research in Europe presents a fascinating picture because, however haphazard its development might seem to an individual scientist struggling to make an impact in his country, from a European perspective it is clear that we are now entering a new era. Nutrition is becoming an ever higher policy priority for most governments, for the European Union, and for other international bodies such as the United Nations. The same developments are evident, of course, in North America but the policy implications and responses are, for sociological reasons, very different. Nevertheless the reason for this renaissance in nutrition...

    • Perspectives from Eastern Europe
      (pp. 25-39)

      From Poland to Bulgaria and across Ukraine and Russia, among the greatest threats to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” to productivity, social stability, and democracy is a further decline in an already bleak health picture in Central and Eastern Europe. Hungarians have among the highest cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates in the world; Russian male life expectancy has fallen to 59 years in the last two decades and is dropping; lung cancer rates, already among the highest, are going up; once-stalled infectious diseases have re-emerged and spread.

      A decisive breakthrough in reversing this trend can be made by...

    • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: The Nordic Experience
      (pp. 40-47)

      The Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland) are a group of countries often referred to as Scandinavia. However Scandinavia is a geographical area covering only Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. The languages in these three countries are quite similar, but Finnish and Icelandic are totally different languages. The Nordic countries have strong ties, which have been strengthened by a political decision to maintain Nordic cooperation in many areas.

      The aim of this paper is to describe what has happened in diet and cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), in the Nordic countries during recent decades. Two of these...

    • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A South Pacific Perspective
      (pp. 48-58)
      JIM MANN

      High rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the European populations of the South Pacific (predominantly residents of Australia and New Zealand) and rapidly increasing rates in many of the indigenous populations, especially when exposed to rapid acculturation, have resulted in a great deal of interest in the relationships between diet and cardiovascular disease in this part of the world. This contribution deals with several nutrition issues relevant to preventive measures aimed at reducing CHD incidence in the South Pacific and in particular to advice relating to the nature of dietary fat. Some of the research findings presented here may...

    • Pathogenic and Protective Nutritional Factors in Coronary Heart Disease
      (pp. 59-100)

      Historically and to the present time a vast amount of evidence in both humans and animals has pointed to certain dietary factors that produce atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The evidence for the crucial role of nutritional factors in the causation of atherosclerosis and its chief clinical consequence, coronary heart disease, goes back to the early years of this century. Ignatovski and Anitschkow in Russia demonstrated that feeding rabbits animal foods, cholesterol, and fat caused hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis (1,2). At about the same time de Langen demonstrated that the Dutch diet, rich in animal foodstuffs, would elevate the cholesterol level...

    • Diet and Hypertension
      (pp. 103-119)

      This review of diet and hypertension has been written to complement Kaplan's excellent paper (i), and the reader should refer to it for relevant background. Additional references are provided to selected recent publications. The emphasis is on studies that provide epidemiological, mechanistic, or interventional evidence linking diet to the pathophysiology or management of hypertension in humans.

      1 To appreciate the role of diet in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of hypertension.

      2 To define the relative importance of obesity, alcohol consumption, dietary fibre, and minerals in hypertension.

      3 To understand the relative importance of non-pharmacological dietary interventions in the treatment...

    • The Role of Diet in Chronic Renal Disease Progression
      (pp. 120-131)

      Renal disease often seems to progress in a predictable manner that is independent of the original cause of injury. Although the mechanisms for this non-specific disease progression are poorly understood, a large number of experimental and clinical trials have examined the effects of diet on renal disease progression. Several different diet interventions have been suggested to retard the rate of renal disease progression, including low protein and phosphorous, low cholesterol and fat, and low salt. However only low-protein and low-phosphorous diets have been extensively studied in clinical trials, and unfortunately many of these trials have suffered from poor study design....

    • Diet and Obesity
      (pp. 132-144)

      Obesity is a condition characterized by excess body fat deposition, which is the consequence of the inability to match energy intake to expenditure or vice versa for a long period of time. It is generally accepted that obesity is explained by both environmental and genetic factors as well as their interaction (1). A significant part of the effect of environment on body fat deposition depends on dietary factors whose effects have been emphasized by numerous studies. This paper describes recent progress in this area of research and related clinical implications in the prevention and treatment of obesity.

      The use of...

    • Diet and Diabetes
      (pp. 145-164)

      Diabetes is a major socio-economic problem because of its high frequency, high morbidity and mortality, and high cost (1-3). The incidence of diabetes varies around the world from nearly 50% of the population in the Pima Indians of southern Arizona, to virtually zero in parts of rural Africa. In Canada about 5% of the population is known to have diabetes and another 5% is undiagnosed. The incidence increases with age, and 15-20% of the population over the age of 65 has diabetes (4). Diabetes is the number one cause of blindness (5), end-stage renal disease (6), and gangrene and amputation...

    • Diet in Relation to Osteoporosis
      (pp. 167-176)

      Diet and nutritional supplements, specifically the administration of calcium and vitamin D, can play a crucial role in preventing osteoporosis by developing and sustaining bone mass throughout an individual's life. However proper nutrition may not prevent osteoporosis in many individuals. To understand the relationship between diet and osteoporosis, it is first necessary to review our understanding of osteoporosis.

      Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a resultant increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture (1). It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality...

    • Nutrition in Relation to Alcohol Use
      (pp. 177-191)

      A review of this subject nine years ago (1) dealt mainly with six topics: the question of alcohol and “empty calories,” and the effects of alcohol on nutrient absorption from the intestine, vitamin storage, vitamin activation, nutrient utilization, and nutrient excretion. The progress of knowledge in this field during the past nine years is demonstrated rather strikingly by a comparison of that list with the topics covered in the present review, reflecting the major content of the recent literature:

      “empty calories” vs obesity in alcohol users

      effect of alcohol on vitamin metabolism, especially vitamin A and retinoids

      alcohol metabolism and...

    • Role of Diet in Health Maintenance throughout Life
      (pp. 192-198)

      As we examine the epidemiology of youthful longevity, it becomes clear that to succeed in attaining this goal we need to conduct a healthy lifestyle since we cannot control our genetic constitution. The good news here is that most of these lifestyle variables, including smoking, alcohol abuse, drug use, unhealthy nutrition, lack of exercise, and unsafe sexual practices, have been well established as risk factors through a large number of cohort and retrospective epidemiological studies. Their establishment may be considered the good news from the point of view of causation. The bad news is that we have to intervene on...

    • Nutritional Problems of the Elderly
      (pp. 199-212)

      As in many Western countries the population of Canada is ageing as a result of an increasing life expectancy, which at 65 is now 20 years for women and 14 years for men (1). In the year 2021 almost 20% of the Canadian population will be over 65 years of age, and over 40% of all elderly will be over 75 years. It is projected that in 2031, 1.1 million Canadians will be aged > 85 years (1). To limit the impact of these changes in demographics on the health care system, health of Canadians will have to be optimized...

    • Dietary Mutagens and Carcinogens: Heterocyclic Amines
      (pp. 215-226)

      Epidemiological studies have indicated that environmental factors, especially dietary factors, are closely related to the development of human cancer (1). A variety of naturally occurring mutagens/carcinogens, such as mycotoxins, fermentation-associated compounds, pyrolysis products, and other harmful substances of plant origin, may exist in foods, and their identification must be the first step in determining their contribution to cancer in humans.

      The discovery of the mutagenic potential of cooked meat and fish inSalmonella typhimuriumTA98, in the presence of s9 mix, metabolic activation system, led us to search for the individual responsible mutagens. Monitoring of mutagenicity to S.typhimuriumTA98...

    • Nutrition in Relation to Stomach Cancer and Stroke Mortality
      (pp. 227-236)

      Stomach cancer and stroke mortality were found to be strongly correlated among 18 countries in 1964 (1). From the start it was shown that this association persisted, using populations of different or identical age groups for stomach cancer and stroke, indicating that it was a population and not an individual association. Therefore it was undetectable by clinical investigation. This relationship still persists (figure 1, r = 0.71)).

      Already in 1968 a quantitatively similar relation was found within countries that was confirmed later on (2,3). The regression equation from Canada, 1950 to 1992 (figure 2, r = 0.99), using the average...

    • Epidemiology of Breast and Colon Cancers: Old Risk Factors, New Mechanisms?
      (pp. 237-257)

      Cancers of the breast and colon have considerable similarities in their patterns of occurrence and in dietary and lifestyle risk factors. This paper will describe these epidemiological factors and will consider the possibility that similar biological mechanisms may be involved in the development of both types of tumour.

      Among Canadian women the breast is the site of cancer with the highest incidence rate and second highest mortality rate, exceeded only by that of lung cancer. The colon is the site of cancer with the third highest incidence and mortality rates, its rates being exceeded only by those of breast and...

    • Cancer: Influences of Fat and Calories
      (pp. 258-270)

      More than 60 years ago Watson and Mellanby (1) showed that tumour growth could be influenced by dietary fat when they added 12.5-25.0% butter to a diet containing 3% fat and increased the incidence of coaltar-induced skin tumours in mice by 68%. In the early 19405 Baumann’s group at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary fat increased the incidence of some chemically-induced tumours in mice and found further that saturated fat was less co-carcinogenic than unsaturated fat (2-5). The latter observation was confirmed by Carroll and his co-workers (6,7). Ip et al. (8) demonstrated a positive...

    • Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Action
      (pp. 273-295)

      Dear Partners,

      The health and well-being of individuals and the prosperity of the nation require a well nourished population. We all have a role to play in improving the nutritional health of Canadians.

      Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Actionis the result of a multisectoral, Canada-wide process that gathered the collective wisdom of groups, organizations, and individuals. Communities and organizations can use thisAgenda for Actionto develop plans specific to their needs and capacities.

      Implementation is up to all of us. The Joint Steering Committee recommends the establishment of a multisectoral network at the national level to provide...

  12. Index
    (pp. 296-318)