Entrepreneurship and Community Economic Development

Entrepreneurship and Community Economic Development

Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 288
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Entrepreneurship and Community Economic Development
    Book Description:

    One of the goals of regional policies is to foster entrepreneurship and innovation in the nation's smaller and more remote communities. Policymakers are becoming increasingly interested in the Community Economic Development approach as a way of achieving this aim. In Entrepreneurship and Community Economic Development Monica Diochon examines the development processes adopted by two rural, single-industry Canadian communities confronting the collapse of their economic bases. She argues that a community's effectiveness in influencing economic development depends on the extent to which entrepreneurship is encouraged and shows that, while a number of factors influence enterprise, economic activities that are community-determined and provide varied opportunities to participate in achieving short-term self-sustaining strategic outcomes are particularly important.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7084-9
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Tables and Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xii)

    Community-based development is now believed by many both within and outside government to be the most promising approach to promoting economic growth in Canada’s smaller and more remote regions. It is not at all clear what gave rise to this view.

    It was in the spring of 1998 that I first heard about the economic success of Isle Madame in Nova Scotia. Without putting too fine a point on it, the view in Ottawa was that past federal regional development efforts in Atlantic Canada had failed and that the focus in future should be on promoting community economic development. For...

  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-2)
  7. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-9)

    Over the past two decades, community-based development activity has been gaining momentum as a way of dealing with economic and social problems associated with global economic restructuring. Having virtually abandoned the traditional, centrally devised, regional economic development policies and initiatives, government policymakers throughout industrialized nations increasingly favour community-based development approaches.

    In Canada, government began abdicating its interventionist role during the 1980s by increasing the level of community involvement in policy and program development. During this time, social safety nets such as income transfers and “make-work” projects continued to play a strategic role in government response to economic disparity and poverty....

  8. 2 The Theory and Practice of Endogenous Development: Roots and Challenges
    (pp. 10-36)

    Since the mid-1980s there has been a substantial shift in approaches to regional development, away from exogenously weighted models carrying with them cultures and values associated with top-down policy intervention, toward the new paradigm of a more locally focused “bottom-up” endogenous approach. It involves a fundamental reappraisal of the development process, along with a wider conceptual debate about the certainties, nature, and purpose of development. Impetus for this shift has been provided by the fact that regional disparities in both Europe and North America have endured and, in some cases, become more pronounced (Cappellin and Molle 1988, 1) amidst policy...

  9. 3 The Exogenous/Endogenous Development Debate in Canada
    (pp. 37-47)

    Like many countries, Canada is characterized by unbalanced economic growth. The dominant approach to Canadian economic geography is the heartland-hinterland model of spatial activity (Anderson 1988, 3—8). Within this model the country is often viewed as a hinterland in the world economic system, with most export income entering the Canadian economy as a result of hinterland sales of raw materials, primary manufactures, and agricultural goods to the United States and other foreign markets. The heartland, in turn, is heavily dependent on domestic hinterland expenditures.

    The nation itself is comprised of an industrial heartland extending from Windsor to Quebec City...

  10. 4 Community Economic Development: The Community as a Development Actor
    (pp. 48-76)

    The term Community Economic Development¹ originated in the United States during the 1960s (Fontan 1993, 12). It has been used increasingly over the past decade to describe an endogenous development approach that uses locally based collective action for mobilizing community resources to improve well-being and increase self-sufficiency (Perry 1987, 73; Blakely 1989; Ketilson, Fulton et al. 1992, 3; Brodhead 1993; Swack and Mason 1993).

    The interest CED is attracting both in Canada and elsewhere points up the impasse in establishing a precise definition of the approach, its objectives, its practice, as well as its success and therefore its potential (Lamontagne...

  11. 5 A Conceptual Framework for Fostering Entrepreneurship and Innovation
    (pp. 77-97)

    Analytical frameworks of the development process have been eschewed within the Community Economic Development literature, on the assumption that the uniqueness of communities and the situations they face render them inappropriate (New Economy Development Group Inc. 1992, 20). However, the fact that the same distinctiveness characterizes individuals, groups, and organizations has not precluded attempts at explanation of process and behaviour at these levels of analysis. Systematic analysis and interpretation of the development process is essential to understanding the key role of innovation and entrepreneurship.

    There has been a proliferation of government policy and discussion papers in Canada dealing with the...

  12. 6 Methodology and Research Design
    (pp. 98-114)

    Any empirical inquiry is underpinned by assumptions about how most appropriately to study a particular phenomenon. Despite their differences, the two perspectives underlying Community Economic Development practice share the view that development is not a deterministic process. Both assume that a community has the greatest understanding of the problems it faces and therefore is in the best position to develop solutions making use of underutilized resources. Given this as the key premise, the meanings adopted by a community at any point in time are central to understanding the development process. Acquiring knowledge of the process requires an emphasis on the...

  13. 7 Analysis and Results
    (pp. 115-201)

    This chapter presents the findings from the two case study communities. In it, I test the theoretical framework by exploring whether the case study evidence supports the proposition that a community’s effectiveness in influencing economic development is dependent on the extent to which the process it adopts encourages entrepreneurship, even though its main purpose is to foster economic development. Underpinning this basic proposition is the idea that entrepreneurship takes place when the four key process variables are congruently configured to match those proposed earlier in this book.

    Guided by the hypotheses that led to the case study, the investigation makes...

  14. 8 Conclusions and Recommendations
    (pp. 202-212)

    In this book I address a fundamental question: How can local development be induced in areas identified as lacking entrepreneurial capacity and organizational and administrative skills? In light of the aim to contribute to a better understanding of community-based development, it is important to consider what has been accomplished thus far.

    In exploring the connections among entrepreneurship, innovation, and endogenous development, I have shown that an inclusive framework is essential in studying a complex phenomenon such as development. The Community Enterprise Emergence Model represents the first effort to incorporate the various factors that research has identified as important to development....

  15. APPENDIX: The Community Enterprise Emergence Model
    (pp. 213-228)
  16. Notes
    (pp. 229-234)
  17. References
    (pp. 235-250)
  18. Index
    (pp. 251-258)