Politics of Collegiality

Politics of Collegiality: Retrenchment Strategies in Canadian Universities

Copyright Date: 1996
Pages: 241
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  • Book Info
    Politics of Collegiality
    Book Description:

    In The Politics of Collegiality Hardy uses six case studies to explore how power and collegiality interact within institutional contexts during periods of fiscal restraint. Examining the funding cutbacks implemented by McGill University, Université de Montréal, University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University, University of Toronto, and Carleton University, Hardy demonstrates that institutional context and retrenchment strategy are linked in such a way that what works in some institutions will not work in others.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6570-8
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 3-15)

    Changing enrolment patterns, funding restrictions, and demands for increased accountability from public paymasters have prompted a reexamination of the nature of university administration in recent years. Both administrators and government officials have expressed a growing interest in managerial techniques that introduce more of a business orientation into universities – techniques such as strategic planning, program evaluation, and performance indicators. One manifestation of these trends is the Jarratt Report (Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals 1985) in the United Kingdom. Similar patterns have been noted in other European countries and in Australia and New Zealand (Van Vught 1989; Watts 1992.). While Canadian universities...

  6. CHAPTER TWO The Canadian Context
    (pp. 16-34)

    This brief introduction to the Canadian university sector and to its development provides a context for the case studies found in the following chapters. (For a more detailed and more comprehensive discussion of higher education in Canada, see Cameron 1991, on which the discussion in the first two sections of this chapter is largely based.) Since the book focuses on retrenchment strategies adopted in response to financial restrictions implemented during the early and mid 1980s, the following discussion describes the situation at that time. National developments will be described first, followed by specific information on the provinces of Quebec, Ontario,...

  7. CHAPTER THREE McGill University
    (pp. 35-56)

    What was McGill University’s financial situation during the early 1980s? How did it respond? What were the reasons behind its choice of retrenchment strategy and what were the implications of that choice for the university? Before attempting to answer these questions, it will be helpful to provide some details about McGill’s governance structure.

    McGill University, established in 1821 with a bequest from James McGill, is one of Canada’s oldest higher-learning institutions. In 1984 (the year when this study was conducted), it was a large research institution catering for around 30,000 students, 5,000 of whom were in graduate programs. About 1,500...

  8. CHAPTER FOUR The University of Montreal
    (pp. 57-73)

    The University of Montreal was originally established in 1876 as part of Laval University but became independent in 1919. It was a Roman Catholic institution until 1967, when it received a new charter that converted it into a private institution although it continued to depend on government funding. In 1984, the university had thirteen faculties: Arts and Science (comprising nearly thirty departments and around 600 professors), Theology, Law, Medicine, Education, Music, Continuing Education, Pharmacy, Veterinary Science, Dentistry, Graduate Studies, Nursing, and Environment Design. Students numbered around 30,000, including some 6,000 graduates, and there were nearly 1,500 professors. The annual operating...

  9. CHAPTER FIVE Comparison: McGill University and the University of Montreal
    (pp. 74-78)

    McGill University and the University of Montreal are similar in terms of many of their structural characteristics and research mandates. In the face of budgetary restraints imposed by the provincial government, they adopted similar strategies to cope with these challenges but chose quite different processes of implementing those strategies (Hardy 1987b).

    The two universities chose similar mechanisms for reducing expenditures: since 80 percent of the budget was tied up in salaries and tenure, and since job security protected the majority of employees, reducing the number of posts through attrition was the main mechanism adopted by both institutions. McGill had some...

  10. CHAPTER SIX The University of British Columbia
    (pp. 79-100)

    The University of British Columbia (UBC) was initially established under the auspices of McGill University but gained full independent status in 1915. It is the largest university in British Columbia: in 1984, some 1,900 professors taught in twelve faculties; there were about 27,000 students, 4,000 of whom were graduates; and the university’s operating budget was $215 million, augmented by research grants of over $50 million.

    The focus of the study here is on UBC’S response to the provincial government’s 1983 restraint legislation. The university had already had some experience with financial restrictions prior to 1983. Following an arbitration award, a...

  11. CHAPTER SEVEN Simon Fraser University
    (pp. 101-115)

    Simon Fraser University (SFU), named after the fur trader who explored the Fraser River in 1808, opened its doors to 2,500 students in 1965, two years after the publication of a report that recommended the creation of a new university in British Columbia. By 1984 SFU had some 450 faculty and 12,000 students, of whom almost half were parttime and about 1,500 were at the graduate level. The budget was nearly $70 million, in addition to which over $7 million was obtained through research grants. The university’s administrative structure is outlined in Figure 7.1. As we shall see, the strategy...

  12. CHAPTER EIGHT Comparison: The University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University
    (pp. 116-120)

    Whereas the comparison between McGill University and the University of Montreal shows that similar strategies were implemented in different ways, a comparison of the University of British Columbia with Simon Fraser University reveals that quite different retrenchment strategies were adopted in response to the same external pressures (Hardy 1992). SFU explicitly ruled out the termination of tenured faculty, while UBC engaged in program closures that resulted in nine tenured faculty members losing their jobs. The UBC/SFU comparison suggests that differences in institutional contexts played a role in shaping the choice of strategy. It also shows how both universities attempted to...

  13. CHAPTER NINE The University of Toronto
    (pp. 121-142)

    The University of Toronto (UT), which received its charter in 1827, is the largest university in Canada. In 1984, it operated under the 1971University of Toronto Actand had 15 faculties, six colleges, and three campuses – at Toronto (the focus of this chapter), Scarborough, and Erindale. It had over 50,000 students, of whom nearly one fifth were graduates; over 2,000 professors; and a budget that exceeded $500 million (including over $100 million in research grants).

    The University of Toronto had two structural characteristics that differentiated it from the other universities examined in this study (Figure 9.1). First, its hierarchy...

  14. CHAPTER TEN Comparison: The University of Columbia and University of Toronto
    (pp. 143-146)

    A comparison of the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto reveals that there were differences in the ability their respective central administrators to neutralize potentially rebellious interest groups. It shows that administrators at UBC were far more successful in dealing with resistance and implementing their intended retrenchment strategy.

    As seen in chapter eight, the context at UBC was relatively decentralized, with the deans enjoying a substantial degree of power. In comparison, the University of Toronto was more centralized: there was a larger and more clearly defined hierarchy, and the central administration had far greater control over budgeting...

  15. CHAPTER ELEVEN Carleton University
    (pp. 147-162)

    Carleton University was founded in the 1940s. In 1984, the university had an annual budget of $95 million and another $10 million in research grants. There were some 16,000 students (excluding those registered for the summer session), of whom one third were part-time and slightly over one tenth were in graduate programs. The university employed over 600 faculty members. The administrative structure of the university is outlined in Figure 11.1 The Board of Governors had thirty members in addition to the chancellor and president. Most were appointed by the Board, but three were elected by the Senate, and two by...

  16. CHAPTER TWELVE Understandingg Institutional Context
    (pp. 163-182)

    The retrenchment policies adopted by a number of Canadian universities in the early 1980s were shaped by the internal context of each institution, as we have seen in the preceding chapters. It has been argued that these differences in context, which stemmed from variations in access to, and the use of, power by university actors, played some role in influencing choices concerning both retrenchment strategies and methods of implementation. The comparative chapters focused on three particular examples. The first (chapter five) showed that the institutional context helps to explain why the two Montreal universities examined in this study chose very...

  17. CHAPTER THIRTEEN The Politics of Collegiality
    (pp. 183-197)

    In the rhetoric of higher education, universities are often assumed to be collegia! organizations, even though collegiality is usually associated with loyalty to a professional group and overrides commitment to the institution (Gaff and Wilson 1971; Satow 1975; Becher 1981; Clark 1983). Collegiality can, however, operate at the institutional level as well. Clark (1970, 1971, 1972.) was among the first to propound the concept of a collegial institution in which individuals are bound together by the “saga” or institutional mission. The recent literature on university cultures shows how shared beliefs and ideologies commit members to the organization and motivate them...

  18. CHAPTER FOURTEEN Conclusions
    (pp. 198-204)

    This final chapter summarizes some of the main issues raised by the present study. In general, it questions the move towards managerialism that has become so popular in the sphere of higher education. While it does not dispute that some university procedures can be made more efficient, nor that a more insightful understanding and analysis of the environment could produce more creative and innovative strategies, it does question the rational-analytic focus that underlies the managerialist ideology. Managerialism fails to take account of the political realities of university life and ignores the role of power in both confronting and preventing resistance....

  19. APPENDIX: Methodology
    (pp. 205-210)
  20. Notes
    (pp. 211-212)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 213-224)
  22. Index
    (pp. 225-232)