Canada Among Nations, 1990-91

Canada Among Nations, 1990-91: After the Cold War

Fen Osler Hampson
Christopher J. Maule
Copyright Date: 1991
Pages: 293
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt80sqm
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  • Book Info
    Canada Among Nations, 1990-91
    Book Description:

    This is the seventh volume on Canada in international affairs produced by The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University .As in the past, the book is organized around the most recent calendar year and contains an analysis and assessment of Canadian foreign policies as well as the environment that constrains and shapes them. Our intention is to contribute to the continuing debate about appropriate policy choices for Canada.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7370-3
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables and Figures
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. List of Contributors
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. GLOSSARY
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Fen Osler Hampson and Christopher J. Maule
  7. 1 AFTER THE COLD WAR
    (pp. 1-24)
    Fen Osler Hampson and Christopher J. Maule

    “After the Cold War, what next?” might be the more appropriate title for this year’s volume ofCanada Among Nations.The fading of the initial euphoria over the end of the Cold War — marked by the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and the unification of the two Germanics — was soon followed by a gathering of storm clouds. Hopes that the end of the Cold War would smooth the way to a more peaceful and benign international order were dashed by events in the Persian Gulf, by continuing economic and political turmoil in the newly minted democracies of Eastern Europe,...

  8. 2 THE CANADIAN MALAISE AND ITS EXTERNAL IMPACT
    (pp. 25-40)
    Gilles Paquet

    In the world of 1990, political economies are like Klein bottles: the domestic inside and the transnational outside are inextricably mingled: the international context shapes domestic institutions in fundamental ways, and the ethos and circumstances of national socio-economies impact on their standing in the world.

    Evidence of the international impact of the current Canadian domestic malaise is somewhat conjectural. Yet it deserves explicit analysis, for the international echo box may well generate a feedback to the national scene that could accentuate the internal malaise. The speculative nature of the exercise should not discourage such analyses. When public policy is being...

  9. 3 CANADA AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: POLICIES FOR THE 1990s
    (pp. 41-64)
    Lawrence L. Schembri

    For most countries trade policy will be the dominantinternationaleconomic policy issue of the 1990s, replacing macroeconomic policy coordination which was the premier issue of the 1980s. This shift in focus towards trade policy is very significant for Canada because the Canadian economy is heavily dependent on trade; approximately one quarter to one third of total domestic final expenditures and domestic production are imported and exported respectively. This policy shift is also extremely important for the rest of the world, especially for the less developed countries (LDCs), because international trade is the most effective means of achieving and sustaining...

  10. 4 EVOLVING CORPORATE STRATEGIES: ADJUSTING TO THE FTA
    (pp. 65-82)
    Isaiah A. Litvak

    Globalization of markets has forced multinational corporations (MNCs) to restructure their operations. This process commenced in the 1970s, intensified in the 1980s, and has become an ongoing reality for 1990s. While the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) has helped promote the process, it is by no means a dominant element. Competition with Japan, the success of the “four tiger” countries in world markets, the overall reduction of trade barriers and the coming integration of Western Europe, have all combined to make this process irreversible.

    Multinationals are now pursuing globalization strategies, and are manufacturing, conducting research, purchasing supplies, servicing products, and...

  11. 5 CANADA DISCOVERS ITS VOCATION AS A NATION OF THE AMERICAS
    (pp. 83-108)
    Michael Hart

    Over the years, Canadians have made a cult out of a perpetual national identity crisis, seeking to be a European nation, an Atlantic nation, a Pacific nation, and even an Arctic nation — anything but what we are,a nation of the Americas. Historian Ramsay Cook has captured this preoccupation with identity:

    [Canada] has suffered for more than a century from a somewhat more orthodox and less titillating version of Portnoy’s complaint: the inability to develop a secure and unique identity. And so ... intellectuals and politicians have attempted to play psychiatrist to the Canadian Portnoy, hoping to discover a Canadian identity.²...

  12. 6 CANADA AND LATIN AMERICA
    (pp. 109-124)
    Maxwell A. Cameron

    The challenges facing Latin America in 1990 were not so much the result of external forces as of economic decline and the piecemeal disintegration of domestic institutions.¹ The end of the Cold War brought hope to the region that it would not serve as a battlefield for future superpower confrontation. It also revealed the isolation of Cuba and the lack of revolutionary options in the rest of Latin America. The M-19 guerrillas in Colombia participated in municipal and presidential elections, despite violence directed against them by narcotics traffickers that claimed the life of their presidential candidate. The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias...

  13. 7 EUROPE 1992 AND THE CANADIAN RESPONSE
    (pp. 125-144)
    Charles Pentland

    The European Community’s campaign to complete its internal market by the end of 1992 is the latest and most far-reaching challenge to Canada arising from the post-war unification of Western Europe. This chapter explores the background, development and implications of the 1992 project and Canada’s response to it.

    Expanding upon the model of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which had begun operating in 1952, the Treaty of Rome set out a detailed and ambitious program for the gradual integration of the economies of France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries, beginning on January 1, 1958. Benefiting...

  14. 8 A NEW ORDER IN EUROPE: EVOLVING SECURITY SYSTEMS
    (pp. 145-166)
    John Halstead

    If 1989 was the year of revolution in Eastern Europe, marking the end of the Soviet empire, 1990 was the year of German reunification, marking the end of the division of Europe. The world stood witness to the birth pangs of a new order in Europe, with a new Germany at its core. With German reunification went the end of the Cold War, consequent upon the Gorbachev revolution in the Soviet Union, as relations between the superpowers moved from confrontation to dialogue and then to cooperation. Indeed the hegemony of the superpowers was itself coming to an end, as the...

  15. 9 THE COLLAPSE OF THE REGIONAL SYSTEM IN EASTERN EUROPE IMPLICATIONS FOR EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
    (pp. 167-190)
    Carl McMillan

    Scarcely more than a decade after the European Common Market (EC) seemed moribund, and integration studies had gone out of academic fashion, we seem to be faced with a world economy rapidly dividing into blocs. Developments in Europe are again the centre of attention. It is the prospect of a more unified Europe in the 1990s, and its echoes in North America and Asia, that have reawakened interest in the processes of regional economic integration.

    But blocs are not everywhere on the rise. The events in Eastern Europe in 1989-90 that so captured the world’s imagination witnessed the effective disintegration...

  16. 10 CANADA AND THE SOVIET UNION
    (pp. 191-208)
    Allan L. Kagedan

    During 1990, Canada-Soviet relations advanced to an unprecedented level of mutual understanding based on the reality and promise of President Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform policies. At the same time, the Kremlin faced challenges which cast doubt on the future of reform. The Soviet government heard persistent calls for independence on the part of the U.S.S.R.’s fifteen constituent republics, including the vast Russian republic. Moscow was also grappling with competing plans to induce the country to adopt a market economy. Canada’s failure to ratify the Meech Lake Accord, and Quebec’s subsequent decision to review its relationship with the rest of Canada, dominated...

  17. 11 JAPAN - RISING SUN OR WESTERN STAR
    (pp. 209-240)
    H. Edward English and Yoshitaka Okada

    Japan, a country of islands less than three quarters the size of France, has risen from the ashes of World War II, surpassed all of its European rivals in economic performance, and raised the level of its gross national product (GNP) to more than half that of the United States, which has twenty-five times its area. With only 2.5 percent of the world's population and 0.3 percent of the world land area, Japan accounted, in 1987, for more than 10.0 percent of world GNP, 9.8 percent of world exports, and 8.0 percent of world trade.¹ The cumulative amount of foreign...

  18. 12 CANADA, THE GULF CRISIS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY
    (pp. 241-280)
    Martin Rudner

    The Iraqi invasion and the annexation of Kuwait sparked a crisis of historic firsts. These events marked the first time ever that a Third World country was attacked and conquered by a neighbour. For the first time in modem Arab history one member of the Arab League forcibly seized another. The ensuing crisis signified the first challenge to the United Nations (UN) collective security system since the end of the Cold War. The reaction of the UN Security Council denoted the first occasion, since the Second World War, that its permanent members, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France...