Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow

Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism

MATTHEW HAYDAY
Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 272
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt80z3m
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  • Book Info
    Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow
    Book Description:

    Hayday shows how the language programs and policies initiated by the Trudeau government supported French-Canadian and Acadian minority communities, enabling them to develop minority language education systems and laying the groundwork for the minority language education rights contained in section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. He examines how the dynamics of Canadian federalism shaped the implementation and development of language policy in six Canadian provinces and shows how advocates of these programs - politicians, bureaucrats, parents, lobbyists, and teachers - worked to ensure their success. These dynamic programs not only guaranteed minority language education rights but dramatically increased access to French second language instruction, particularly through the innovative new sector of French immersion.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-5996-7
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Tables
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Acronyms
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. INTRODUCTION A Linguistic Divide, a Crisis of Canadian Unity
    (pp. 3-15)

    In the spring of 2003 Stéphane Dion, the minister for intergovernmental affairs in Jean Chrétien’s Liberal government, launched an action plan for official languages in Canada. EntitledThe Next Act: New Momentum for Canada’s Linguistic Duality, the plan recommitted the federal government to supporting official-languages programs from coast to coast, while increasing the funding attributed to this end. Dion’s announcement coincided with the fortieth anniversary of the establishment of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (B & B Commission), whose repercussions are felt to this day and whose recommendations provided the foundation for a host of Canadian official-languages programs....

  7. CHAPTER ONE A Century of Language Conflict in Canada
    (pp. 16-34)

    The decision of the governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Elliot Trudeau to actively promote two official languages in the 1960s marked a decisive break with how governments had historically addressed language issues in Canada. Indeed, during the pre-Confederation era and the first hundred-odd years of Canada’s existence as a country, the best treatment that French-speaking minorities could hope for from their government was benign neglect. Most met with active attempts either to assimilate them or to prevent them from using their mother tongue. The dawn of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec heralded a new era in how both...

  8. CHAPTER TWO From Royal Commission to Government Policy, 1963–1970
    (pp. 35-62)

    By the 1960s, it was clear that continuing to run Canada as if it contained only English speakers was no longer a viable option. With the dawn of the Quiet Revolution, the province of Quebec was now front and centre in constitutional debates, demanding that the rights of its French-speaking majority be acknowledged and that the provincial government be given additional powers to this end. Provincial premiers such as John Robarts and Louis Robichaud were calling for new arrangements to respond to the needs of French-speaking Canadians. Even provinces that had outlawed the teaching of French in their schools were...

  9. CHAPTER THREE Growing Pains and Intergovernmental Squabbles, 1970–1976
    (pp. 63-99)

    In 1970, after two long years of wheeling and dealing, the Bilingualism in Education Program (BEP) was born. As we saw in chapter 2, Ottawa had agreed to provide $300 million to the provinces over the next four years in support of their minority-language education and second-language instruction programs. The program rested on a rather shaky base of guesswork and assumptions, and several aspects, ranging from evaluation to implementation, had been left deliberately vague to appease all the parties concerned. The early years were thus crucial ones for determining the future contours of the infant program. This chapter provides, first,...

  10. CHAPTER FOUR Lévesque’s Gambit Fails: A New English Canadian Consensus, 1976–1979
    (pp. 100-127)

    The months between the November 1976 election of the Parti Québécois and the March 1979 expiration date of the second five-year Bilingualism in Education Program agreement encompassed a crucial turning point in governmental discourse about language policy in education and a fractious period in Canadian federalism. The provincial governments were urged to take a much more aggressive posture in favour of interstate federalism by the government of René Lévesque: a government that lacked any inclination to compromise with Ottawa,especiallyon language issues. The Trudeau government was growing increasingly frustrated by the extent to which the Bilingualism in Education Program...

  11. CHAPTER FIVE The Constitutional Debâcle and the Rise of Language Rights, 1979–1983
    (pp. 128-167)

    At the beginning of spring 1979, the Bilingualism in Education Program agreements had lapsed, but had been provisionally extended for one year. The newly rechristened Official Languages in Education Program (OLEP) had a budget of only $140 million for formula payments, which were paid out at the reduced rates of 6.65 percent, 3.7 percent, and 1.11 percent for the 1979/80 fiscal year.¹ The program would be provisionally extended three more times before a new multiyear protocol agreement was reached in December 1983.

    While negotiations continued between the federal and provincial governments on the future of the OLEP, there were several...

  12. CHAPTER SIX A New Equilibrium: Official-Languages Discourse and Canadian National Identity
    (pp. 168-186)

    The conclusion of the 1983 protocol agreement augured well for the long-term viability of the Official Languages in Education Program. Twenty years later, Heritage Minister Sheila Copps announced an extension of OLEP funding through to 2007–8, the fourth such extension since the protocol was signed. Evaluations of the OLEP undertaken since 1983 have generally been favourable, and its longevity speaks to its success. Yet, some aspects remain problematic, and the issues of control and accountability, which dogged the program in its initial years, continue to create conflict. However, a brief overview of the evolution of the OLEP over the...

  13. APPENDIX: Federal Funding of the Official Languages in Education Program
    (pp. 187-192)
  14. Notes
    (pp. 193-228)
  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 229-248)
  16. Index
    (pp. 249-256)