Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism

Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism: Canadian and Comparative Perspectives

Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 368
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    Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism
    Book Description:

    In Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism leading scholars assess the transformation of these two dimensions of citizenship in increasingly diverse and plural modern societies, both in Canada and internationally. Subjects addressed include the changing ethnic demography of states, social citizenship, multiculturalism, feminist perspectives on citizenship, aboriginal nationalism, identity politics, and the internationalization of human rights.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6802-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Alan C. Cairns, John C. Courtney, Peter MacKinnon, Hans Michelmann and David E. Smith
  4. Contributors
    (pp. ix-2)
  5. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-22)

    A well-functioning institution attracts little attention. Equally, one that has lost its relevance is safe from prying scholarly eyes. Inertia may keep it from the graveyard, as is true of the powers of disallowance and reservation in the Canadian Constitution, which are quaintly described as having fallen into desuetude. Or an institution may be euthanized, as happened to the second chambers in the provinces that were endowed with them at Confederation. Quebec, the last province to abolish its second chamber, did so in 1968. However, an institution whose constitutional role remains significant, but which can no longer draw sustenance from...

  6. 2 Empire, Globalization, and the Fall and Rise of Diversity
    (pp. 23-57)

    The ambition behind this chapter is to provide a panoramic view of how the contemporary relationship between Western states and the peoples subject to their authority came into being. The straightforward route to this goal would probably be an account of the evolution of citizenship. I have taken a less direct route, one that leads us to consider a fundamental precursor of our present world: the rise and fall of empire. In the narrow sense, “empire” refers to the European empires that dominated much of the non-Western world until recent decades. But in this era of European hegemony no one...

  7. 3 Reflections on Ethnic Politics
    (pp. 58-71)

    This volume is concerned with group identities and with the conflict that sometimes arises between our identities as citizens, which involve legal rights and duties, and our other group identities, which are ethnic and cultural. I would like to start with a simple generalization. We all have several group identities. We are socialists or conservatives, Christians or Jews, white or coloured, male or female, etc., and these identities are more or less salient according to circumstance. This is obviously true of ethnic and cultural identities, and, for many millions of people in the world (despite what Lucien Bouchard appears to...

  8. 4 “Landed” Citizenship: Narratives of Aboriginal Political Participation
    (pp. 72-86)

    My grandfather was born in 1901 on the western shores of Georgian Bay, at the Cape Croker Indian reservation. Generations before him were born on the same soil. Our births, lives, and deaths on this site have brought us into citizenship with the land. We participate in its renewal, have responsibility for its continuation, and grieve for its losses. As citizens with this land, we also feel the presence of our ancestors and strive with them to have the relationships of our polity respected. Our loyalties, allegiance, and affection are related to the land. The water, wind, sun, and stars...

  9. 5 Just How Civic Is Civic Nationalism in Quebec?
    (pp. 87-107)

    Quebec nationalism is now an entirely civic movement. That, at least, is the view of most sovereigntist intellectuals.¹ But how accurate is it? How civicisQuebec nationalism?

    In this chapter I explore the ambiguities of Quebec’s nationalist movement. My objective is not to demonstrate that all Quebec nationalists are disguised ethnonationalists. I accept that most sovereigntist intellectuals genuinely want an open and pluralistic society, one that is consistent with civic nationalist aspirations. But I do question whether the civic nationalists’ position provides an accurate picture of the movement as a whole. In this chapter I explore the extent to...

  10. 6 Social Citizenship and the Multicultural Welfare State
    (pp. 108-136)

    Contemporary politics is multicultural politics. In the past, it was perhaps feasible for students of comparative politics to distinguish neatly between, on the one hand, countries with relatively homogenous societies and, on the other, countries with pluralistic societies defined by ethnic and linguistic divisions. In the contemporary period, however, new immigration flows have altered the demographic profile of virtually every Western country, creating new forms of social difference and new patterns of social inequality. We have been living through a globalization not just of our economies but also of our societies. In addition, recent decades have witnessed the resurgence of...

  11. 7 Is Citizenship a Gendered Concept?
    (pp. 137-162)

    Is citizenship a gendered concept? The cultural and legal shift that ended the formal exclusion of women from citizenship took place within living memory, the presence of women in political life is still slight, yet the gender dimension is absent from many discussions of citizenship. Before exploring the connection between gender and citizenship, I will address the meaning of those two terms. In his Introduction to this volume, Alan Cairns talks about a new emphasis on “identities and memories.” The first question we ask about a baby — “Is it a boy or a girl?” — reflects the importance of gender as...

  12. 8 National Self-Determination and Tomorrow’s Political Map
    (pp. 163-176)

    The impact of national self-determination on yesterday’s political map has been enormous. The dismemberment of the former Soviet Union and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are only the most recent manifestations of the challenge that ethnonationalism poses to the survival of the multihomeland state. In the 130-year period that separated the Napoleonic Era and the end of the Second World War, all but three of Europe’s states either lost significant territory and population to ethnonational aspirations or were themselves newly created in the name of national self-determination. (One of the exceptions, Portugal, was ethnically homogeneous; the other two, Spain and...

  13. 9 The Legal Enforcement of Social Norms: Techniques and Principles
    (pp. 177-201)

    In any society, multiple normative orders coexist, competing with one another for the allegiance and obedience of the individuals under their influence. This phenomenon gives rise to a challenge to the law, itself a normative order whose agents are used to thinking of it as superior to all others. To what extent should the legal system take cognizance of, and even give way to, social norms that develop independently of officially endorsed rules? To the extent that it does so, it exhibits a form of normative pluralism, the inclusion of different and in some sense competing normative frameworks under a...

  14. 10 Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism: The Case of the European Union
    (pp. 202-230)

    Diversity has always been a hallmark of Europe. It is evident in all aspects of life, including language, culture, ethnicity, race, religion, social class, and social status. Diversity has also manifested itself in a broad spectrum of organizational forms, ranging from empire to citystate. These entities have sought in different ways and with widely varying degrees of success and principled sanction to elicit widely different types of allegiance and support, from the direct democracy of the Greekpolis,all the way to the totalitarianism of Nazi Germany.

    In historical terms, one of the most important unifying forces in Europe has...

  15. 11 The Purchased Revolution in South Africa
    (pp. 231-246)

    The relatively peaceful changeover of political power in South Africa has been greatly facilitated by the vast resources of the state and by an economy led by the private sector. Many potential troublemakers were bought off by being put on the payroll of the public service or being absorbed into even more lucrative private business. Ideologues of the old regime were pacified with generous retrenchment packages. This purchased revolution has rapidly produced a new black elite whose lifestyle discredits the legitimacy of the liberation led by the African National Congress (ANC).

    In this chapter, the embourgeoisement of the new power...

  16. 12 Citizenship, Human Rights, and Diversity
    (pp. 247-264)

    Since the time of the Greek and Roman civilizations, the concept of “citizenship” has defined rights and obligations in the Western world. Roman citizens were protected from scourging as punishment for crimes and had other rights in the Roman state; we know from Christian scripture that St Paul considered his Roman citizenship of importance when he was detained and demanded his rights as a citizen.¹ The concept of “citizenship” has long acquired the connotation of a bundle of rights — primarily, political participation in the life of a community, the right to vote, and the right to receive certain protection from...

  17. 13 Democratic Exclusion (and Its Remedies?) The John Ambrose Stack Memorial Lecture
    (pp. 265-287)

    Democracy, particularly liberal democracy, is a great philosophy of inclusion. Rule of the people — by the people, for the people — and where “people” is supposed to mean, unlike in earlier days, everybody, without the unspoken restrictions of yesteryear against peasants, women, slaves, etc. — this offers the prospect of the most inclusive politics in human history.

    And yet there is also something in the dynamic of democracy that pushes to exclusion. This was allowed full rein in earlier forms of this regime, as among the ancient poleis and republics, but today it is a great cause of malaise. In this chapter...