Integrating School and Workplace Learning in Canada

Integrating School and Workplace Learning in Canada: Principles and Practices of Alternation Education and Training

Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 304
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  • Book Info
    Integrating School and Workplace Learning in Canada
    Book Description:

    Contributors include Lesley Andres (University of British Columbia), Paul Anisef (York University), Paul Axelrod (York University), Laurier Caron (Université de Montréal), Nancy Émond (Université de Laval), Paul Gallagher (Gallagher and Associates), Garnet Grosjean (University of British Columbia), Marcelle Hardy (Université de Québec à Montréal), Walter Heinz (Bremen University), Ann Kitching (Gallagher and Associates), Zeng Lin (Illinois State University), Carmen Parent (Université de Québec a Montréal), Christian Payeur (Université de Laval), Tom Puk (Lakehead University), Hans G. Schuetze, Andrew Sharpe (Centre for the Study of Living Standards), Harry Smaller (York University), and Robert Sweet.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7068-9
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Contributors
    (pp. ix-2)
  5. Integrating School and Workplace Learning in Canada: An Introduction to Alternation Education Concepts and Issues
    (pp. 3-22)

    Globalized trading patterns and the growth of information and communication technologies have forced a restructuring of the economy in Canada, and the impact of these changes has been felt both at educational institutions and in individual workplaces. Rapid economic shifts also have given rise to considerable public concern that the educational system is unable to adequately prepare its graduates for work in the new economy. Demands for renewal are directed at the public school and at the post-secondary level, including the apprenticeship system.

    One of the issues raised is the utility of skills and knowledge acquired in schools. Many employers...

    • 1 The Restructuring of Work and the Modernization of Vocational Training in Germany
      (pp. 25-43)

      Each year, German small-crafts enterprises look for applicants to their apprenticeship programs. Other, larger business similarly seek entrants to apprenticeships. MacDonald’s-Germany, for example, has started to offer apprenticeships for restaurant managers. In most German cities there is an annual apprenticeship exchange where employers, students, and officials from the Federal Employment Agency meet in order to exchange information on the availability of training places coming up in the fall. These observations suggest that in Germany the balance between students looking for vocational education and training (vet) and the requirements of employers is effectively organized. This is, however, an erroneous impression.


    • 2 Toward a Regional Approach to Alternation Education and Training: The Case of Quebec
      (pp. 44-65)

      The analysis of alternation education and training has for a long time been characterized by extremely different approaches, depending on the location where the model of alternation is implemented. At one extreme is an approach that strives to describe and characterize “national” models of alternation development. Thus there are numerous analyses of the German dual model, the British apprenticeship system, the Swiss apprenticeship system, and Belgian and French experiments with alternation. At the other extreme are the many studies that focus on the conditions in which alternation is implemented strictly at the local level of the educational institution or the...

    • 3 Alternation Education and Training in Canada
      (pp. 66-92)

      Canada, like other industrialized countries, is undergoing a period of far-reaching and rapid transformation in which information and knowledge are becoming central factors of economic activity (Lipsey, 2000). At the core of this transformation is the rapid spread and pervasive use of information and communication technologies and the growth of competition in global markets. It entails fundamental changes for the nature and organization of work, employment, and, by extension, the ways in which young people are prepared for working life.

      This development has provoked a wide-ranging debate about what kind of competencies people need to find and hold a job...

    • SCHOOL
      • 4 Vocational Education in Ontario Secondary Schools: Past, Present – and Future?
        (pp. 95-112)

        At quite an early age my daughter Christine began to get bored and frustrated with formal education. After trying a number of different schools, she finally gave up and dropped out, even before she reached sixteen. She began working in an entry-level office job, but soon realized she lacked the necessary skills. One day she asked me where she could take a typing course. Her father (ever the teacher) suggested that she might consider enrolling in a high school credit evening course in typing, offered through the local board of education. Thus (I reasoned) she would be able to simultaneously...

      • 5 More than Sorcery Required: The Challenge of Matching Education and Skills for Life and Work
        (pp. 113-134)

        For Canadian students continuing to the post-secondary system following high school, the choice is not simply one of selecting one alternative over another. Decisions are made within the social, cultural, historical, and interpersonal context of the deciding individual. Constraints and opportunities resulting from socio-economic circumstances, geographic location, and cognitive and non-cognitive personality traits affect the decision-making process. Social conditions of inequality, cultural and economic resources, and the prevailing policy and employment climate also impinge on decision-making (Adams, Hays, and Hopson, 1976; Sloan, 1987). An informed decision requires a long-term planning perspective, crystallized preferences, and recognition of constraints and opportunities. Ironically,...

      • 6 School-Workplace Collaboration, An Uneasy Partnership: Experiences from Two Alternation Programs in Quebec
        (pp. 135-155)

        Collaboration between schools and the workplace, advocated by key spokespeople for education and industry, constitutes a challenge whose realization is littered with obstacles. This chapter highlights the viewpoints of the director, the assistant directors, and the coordinators responsible for the administration of four vocational education and training centres. The objective of this discussion is to identify the difficulties surrounding school-workplace collaborations and to understand the implementation of such cooperative ventures. The theoretical framework briefly presents the principal French and American works that have guided our research. After outlining our methodology, we describe two models of school-workplace collaboration:école-usineandalternance....

      • 7 Canada’s Community Colleges and Alternation
        (pp. 156-174)

        Community colleges and community college systems have operated in parts of Canada since the mid-1960s, and Canadians have traditionally held very high and broad expectations for these publicly funded institutions and systems (Dennison and Gallagher, 1986). All the community colleges have tried to be comprehensive in their range of programs and services, rather than specialize in particular program areas. All have had a strong commitment to the education and training of adults as well as secondary school completers. All have engaged in pre-employment training of young adults and the retraining of people whose limited skills have resulted in temporary dislocation...

      • 8 Alternating Education and Training: Students’ Conceptions of Learning in Co-op
        (pp. 175-196)

        Learning theory and empirical research are seeking alternatives to traditional methods of education delivery in an attempt to prepare young people to take their place in a rapidly changing economy and society. The implementation of advanced technologies in the workplace and restructured management processes fuel debates about whether our universities equip graduates with the knowledge and skills relevant to a knowledge-intensive economy. Demands on universities to supplybothhighly trained workers and a meaningful undergraduate experience (Millard, 1991) question the traditional separation between academic and vocational education – between the world of learning and the world of work (Matson and...

      • 9 Alternation Career Paths for Teachers: Reconceptualizing Educultural Alliances
        (pp. 197-216)
        TOM PUK

        The perceived problem in preparing beginning teachers to work in the classroom setting is twofold: during the pre-service component, there is too much emphasis on theory-based instruction and not enough on the practical; whereas during classroom teaching, there is too little integration of theory-based learning and an overemphasis on simple techniques and “recipes” for teaching. This chapter will document current research being conducted in Ontario and elsewhere with regard to what has become a chasm between diverse “educultures” (Puk, 1999), that is, between university-based, pre-service education and school-based teaching and learning. How do teachers acquire the knowledge and skills needed...

      • 10 Bridging the Gap between Liberal and Applied Education
        (pp. 217-242)

        As this volume demonstrates, alternation education includes, more often than not, applied forms of learning much of which lies outside mainstream educational institutions and activities. The creative dimensions of this type of schooling and the market niche it fills are evident, but there is a danger that an overemphasis on the technical dimensions of applied learning will reinforce the unhealthy tension between liberal education, on the one hand, and vocational or professional training, on the other, a tension that is now quite pronounced in North America and elsewhere, as the first part of this chapter illustrates. We argue for a...

      • 11 Apprenticeship in Canada: A Training System under Siege?
        (pp. 243-259)

        A key concern of those responsible for managing Canada’s labour market is that the apprenticeship system is responsive to labour demand developments and that it produces an adequate supply of well-trained journeypersons in a cost-effective and timely manner. The objective of this chapter is to assess the effectiveness of Canada’s apprenticeship system and to discuss the implications of this situation for the labour market.¹

        The chapter recognizes that apprenticeship comes under provincial jurisdiction and that apprenticeship systems vary greatly by province both in their rules and regulations and in their importance. For this reason, it may be misleading to speak...

      • 12 Women and Apprenticeships: The Role of Personal Agency in Transition Success
        (pp. 260-275)

        The Canadian labour market has undergone two decades of restructuring, and these changes have had a profound impact on the school-work transitions of youth. Pathways to meaningful, satisfying, and well-paid employment are today more complex and prolonged. While some high school graduates enter the labour force directly, most become directly involved in further learning. The majority of those interested in acquiring vocational skills enrol in college trades or career-tech programs, while others register as apprentices (Statistics Canada, 1996). Apprenticeships have for some time been the focus of controversy and debate (Weiermair, 1984; Economic Council of Canada, 1992; csls, 2001). Among...

      • 13 New Policy and Research Directions
        (pp. 276-286)

        In this concluding chapter, we first identify some of the barriers to the successful adoption of the alternation concept, and we balance these against more hopeful signs of its growth and development in Canada. We then discuss the policy-research directions that are needed to guide the successful implementation of alternation. These requirements are briefly reviewed in relation to the institutions or systems employing these principles, as well as to the individuals and groups engaged in applied forms of learning. Finally, we examine some of the methodological issues that must be addressed if we are to inform changes in policy and...

  8. Index
    (pp. 287-290)