Trade and Health

Trade and Health: Seeking Common Ground

CHANTAL BLOUIN
JODY HEYMANN
NICK DRAGER
Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 384
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt812g5
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  • Book Info
    Trade and Health
    Book Description:

    Trade and Health answers this question by exploring the entire array of avenues through which trade affects health, and examining a number of case studies on how best to achieve policies that integrate health objectives. The contributors represent the full range of stakeholders in the trade-health debate - medical professionals, civil society representatives, academics from a range of disciplines, and negotiators and policy-makers at the national and global levels.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7449-6
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. 1 Creating Healthy Trade
    (pp. 3-8)
    CHANTAL BLOUIN, JODY HEYMANN and NICK DRAGER

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about one-third of the globe’s population lacks regular access to essential medicines and vaccines and believes that 10 million lives could be saved annually if such medications were more readily available. At the same time, World Bank figures show that approximately 2.7 billion people live below the $2-a-day poverty line.

    Does international trade make world health and poverty better or worse? Intense public debate on the effects of trade agreements on health has been fuelled in recent years by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The agreement has created...

  5. PART ONE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND HEALTH
    • 2 Public Health and the Implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America
      (pp. 11-40)
      CARLOS M. CORREA

      The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the TRIPS Agreement), adopted as part of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round in 1994, became binding for Latin American countries as of 1 January 2000. The agreement brought massive changes in intellectual property rights legislation in these countries, and the landscape in this field changed substantially, in particular in relation to the protection of pharmaceutical products.

      Although the Trips Agreement requires compliance both with minimum substantive standards and with minimum enforcement standards,¹ it left member countries some freedom to implement the obligations it provides for. The first section of...

    • 3 A New Generation of Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements: Lessons from the US-CAFTA-DR Agreement
      (pp. 41-90)
      PEDRO ROFFE, JOHANNA VON BRAUN and DAVID VIVAS-EUGUI

      In December 2003 the USA — Central America Free Trade Agreement was concluded following twelve months of negotiations. The original agreement included the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. When the agreement was finally signed in August 2004 the Dominican Republic became an additional party, the agreement, thus, now being referred to as the US -CAFTA-DR Agreement (henceforth CAFTA). In July 2005 the US Congress approved cafta by a narrow majority, signing it into law in August 2005.¹ This process has been followed also by Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua.²

      CAFTA brings the...

  6. PART TWO TRADE IN HEALTH SERVICES AND HEALTH-RELATED PRODUCTS
    • 4 Trade Policy and Health Professionals’ Movements
      (pp. 93-129)
      RUPA CHANDA

      Migration, both permanent and temporary, has been a long-standing feature of the health care sector. In the 1950s and 1960s, many countries expanded their welfare states and used recruitment of international health workers to staff their health systems. A WHO study conducted in the late 1970s found that in 1972, 6 percent of the world’s physicians and about one-eighth of the world’s medical-school graduates, estimated at 140,000, were located in countries other than their country of origin. About 86 percent of all migrant physicians were working in five countries, namely, Australia, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States,...

    • 5 Rolling Back Malaria and the WTO Doha Development Agenda
      (pp. 130-150)
      BIJIT BORA

      The disastrous effects of malaria are well known. It is estimated that 40 percent of the world’s population is at risk from the disease and that malaria causes more the one million deaths per year.¹ The economic and social burden of the disease is so extensive that eradicating malaria was one of the Millennium Development Goals endorsed by world leaders in 2000.² The United Nations has also declared 2001—10 the decade to roll back malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa.³

      Meeting this challenge will be difficult. A study completed for the UN Millennium Project estimates the annual cost...

    • 6 Trade in Health Services in the ASEAN Context
      (pp. 151-166)
      CHA-AIM PACHANEE and SUWIT WIBULPOLPRASERT

      The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 in Bangkok by the five original member countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined on in 1984, followed by Vietnam (1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997), and Cambodia (1999). The purposes of the association are to accelerate economic growth, social progress, and cultural development and to promote regional peace and stability. The asean region has a population of about 500 million, with a population growth rate of 1.5 percent in 2004, a total area of 4.5 million square kilometres, a combined gross domestic product of...

  7. PART THREE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND TRADE
    • 7 The Effect of Trade on Labour Conditions and Health
      (pp. 169-201)
      ALISON EARLE, ANNA SHEA and JODY HEYMANN

      Economic globalization is typically understood as the increasing flow of capital, labour, and goods across borders and the liberalization of trade between nations worldwide. Trade agreements that have emerged over the last decade or so include detailed protections for capital, while the so-called side agreements on labour and environmental impacts have struggled to get on the agenda. What is the current impact of trade on labour? If current trade does have an impact on labour conditions, what is the impact on health and development of trade liberalization? We do not have good answers to these questions, because insufficient monitoring of...

    • 8 Trade, Inequalities, and Health: Making the Important Measurable
      (pp. 202-225)
      ANNA SHEA, NANCY ROSS and JODY HEYMANN

      Virtually all governments and intergovernmental organizations agree that the primary goal of trade is growth (for just one example, see World Trade Organization 1996). Economic growth is of immense importance to policymakers and government leaders globally. Yet the relationship between the well-being of populations and that of the macroeconomy is complex. In this paper, we begin by showing that population health and well-being are affected less by national wealth than by poverty rates and societal inequality. We review the cross-national and national evidence on the impact of trade liberalization on these economic outcomes. In a number of settings where trade...

    • 9 Trade Policy and Health Equity: Can They Avoid a Collision?
      (pp. 226-262)
      RONALD LABONTE, TED SCHRECKER and DAVID SANDERS

      This chapter addresses conflicts between trade liberalization and health equity, with specific reference to social determinants of health. By health equity we mean “the absence of disparities in health (and in its key social determinants) that are systematically associated with social advantage/disadvantage” (Braveman and Gruskin 2003, 256 ). By social determinants of health, we mean the social conditions in which people live and work — crucially including lack of income, economic insecurity, inappropriate housing, unsafe workplaces, and lack of access to health care. (More detail is provided in the third section of this chapter.) In most low-and middle-income countries, lack of...

  8. PART FOUR POLICY PROCESS AT THE NATIONAL AND GLOBAL LEVELS
    • 10 Achieving Coherence between Trade and Health Policies: Selected Examples from Pakistan, the Philippines, Uganda, and Peru
      (pp. 265-293)
      ELISABETH TUERK and MINA MASHAYEKHI

      Human health is a fundamental human right and a key requisite for development, including human development.¹ Today many diseases are quietly draining the vitality and hope of people in the developing world, diseases including aids, malaria, and tuberculosis, which are concentrated in the poorest countries. At the end of 2004, 39.4 million people in the world were living with HIV, nearly two-thirds of them in sub-Saharan Africa. Each year, almost 11 million children die before the age of five. Most of them live in developing countries and die from a disease or combination of diseases that could be prevented or...

    • 11 Achieving Coherence in Anarchy: Foreign Policy, Trade, and Health
      (pp. 294-324)
      DAVID P. FIDLER

      The tenth anniversary of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2005 prompted reflections on its past, present, and future.¹ The WTO’s broad impact on international relations in an era characterized by economic globalization meant that these reflections ranged across many issues and areas. Many of these analyses did not expressly consider the relationship between trade and the protection of human health. This relationship has, however, become significant in terms of the WTO’s role in the governance of world politics. The relationship between trade and health within the WTO is multifaceted and has been the topic of acrimonious controversies.

      A few...

    • 12 Negotiating across Boundaries: Promoting Health in a Globalized World
      (pp. 325-346)
      DIANA CHIGAS, DAVID FAIRMAN, ELIZABETH MCCLINTOCK and ADIL NAJAM

      Improving health conditions is a top priority and fundamental necessity for many developing countries. It is also critical to the fulfillment of many international development goals. Sustainable development depends on the ability of countries, individually and collectively, to maintain and increase the stock of capital — human and social, as well as physical and financial — that has been the traditional focus of development efforts. Increasingly, human capital (people’s skills, knowledge, and productivity), rather than natural resources, is the basis of comparative and competitive advantage in the developed world. In many developing countries, health hazards and poor sanitary conditions threaten human capital...

  9. Contributors
    (pp. 347-350)
  10. Index
    (pp. 351-372)