Carnivalization of Politics

Carnivalization of Politics: Quebec Cartoons on Relations with Canada, England, and France, 1960-1979

Copyright Date: 1995
Pages: 160
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  • Book Info
    Carnivalization of Politics
    Book Description:

    Examining cartoons published between 1960 and 1979, Morris shows how the artists dealt with particular aspects of Quebec's political experience. He looks at Berthio's drawings on Queen Elizabeth's visit and Dupras's on President de Gaulle's; Girerd's and Berthio's on Quebec-Ottawa relations; Girerd's on the referendum campaign; and Girerd's and Aislin's on the English minority in Quebec. He points out recurring tensions, oppositions, and associations and analyses them from a sociological perspective.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6548-7
    Subjects: Art & Art History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Figures
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. 1 Editorial Cartoons as Social Documents
    (pp. 3-12)

    Semiotic analysis and sociology have recently begun converging in several important ways, with the promise of considerable benefits to both disciplines (McCannell 1983; Harman 1986). Initially semiotics remained within linguistics, concentrating on units no larger than the sentence and excavating their basic grammar. More recently it has expanded its scope, linking with work in other fields on the structure of literary works, buildings, scientific diagrams, and paintings. Its interests now include communication among animals, across language barriers, and over physical handicaps. Semiotics seeks to build an anatomy of discourse in all its forms by exposing the underlying structure of concepts...

  6. 2 Relations with In-Laws: Berthio Greets the Queen
    (pp. 13-36)

    Roland Berthiaume (Berthio) is one of the best-known Quebec cartoonists. Born in 1927, he has worked for nearly all the French-language newspapers in Montreal and for several leading magazines. His style has been described as spontaneous, starkly simple, and incisive (Desbarats and Mosher 1979, 229). He has long been a passionate Quebec nationalist, and he was one of the leading lights of the independentist dailyLe Jour.In an interview, Berthio summed up his philosophy of cartooning: “I try to make people laugh, to give them some consolation for the political events that make them suffer ... It is important...

  7. 3 Relations with Parents: Dupras Welcomes President de Gaulle
    (pp. 37-59)

    The most vivid illustrations of Canada’s relations with its parent countries occur during royal and presidential visits to Canada, especially when these prove controversial. They have more immediacy than visits by Canada's prime minister to one of the parent countries, because Canada occupies centre stage when a parent visits and its people and resources are on display to a valued guest. Ordinary Canadians have the opportunity to observe the symbolic leaders of the parent country in action.

    The two major parental visits to Canada in the 1960s were at first glance striking contrasts. The Queen came to English Canada in...

  8. 4 Quebec and Ottawa as Spouses: Can They Live Together?
    (pp. 60-82)

    In the last two chapters we examined Quebec’s relations with the parent countries through the eyes of Berthio and Dupras, two nationalist cartoonists. The head of the parent country was portrayed much more favourably than the head of the parent-in-law country. Berthio made full use of mother-in-law imagery in representing the Queen, while Dupras showed de Gaulle as the traditional liberating hero.¹ Both these characters stem from the comic form of the myth of the old king (K. Burke 1966, 382—6; Frye 1957,164—76). Both characters fit the metaphor of carnival, although in Dupras the carnival ended when its...

  9. 5 Ottawa and Quebec: Can They Live Apart?
    (pp. 83-106)

    This chapter focuses on the debate preceding the 1980 referendum on Quebec independence, the context in which Girerd explores most fully the ambiguities and contradictions experienced by Québécois in formulating a policy on French-English relations. The Parti Québécois proposal called for fundamental constitutional change to establish a relationship that combined political sovereignty with close economic association with Canada. The Quebec Liberals’ counterproposal clearly endorsed federalism but called for increases in the Quebec government’s jurisdiction. Both parties sought a new version of the Canadian family in which the wife would have more powers.

    The federal government, meanwhile, sought to reconcile two...

  10. 6 Between Parent and Child: Quebec and its Language Minority
    (pp. 107-125)

    In this final empirical chapter we look at the changing parent-child relations in Quebec between 1969 and 1979 as francophones became the dominant group and brought in new language legislation. Language laws were controversial throughout this period. The Liberals held power in Ottawa from 1963 to 1979 and in response to growing discontent in Quebec during the 1960s, established the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, which produced voluminous research (1969) on French-English relations. It recommended widespread changes but was unable to agree on a new division of political powers that satisfied Quebec’s desire for greater autonomy. When Pierre Trudeau...

  11. 7 Conclusions
    (pp. 126-136)

    As I mentioned in chapter 1, I have already argued in my earlier book on Canadian editorial cartoons,Behind the Jester’s Mask(Morris 1989a), that cartoonists in Western capitalist society can be seen as the jesters of the bourgeoisie. This conclusion was not based on a surface analysis of cartoon content. The drawings do not consistently side with capital in labour disputes, nor do they consistently favour right- over left-wing political parties. Indeed, many cartoonists take journalistic professionalism to mean political neutrality and are determined to expose official foolishness, whichever party is in power. This is again true in the...

  12. References
    (pp. 137-142)
  13. Index
    (pp. 143-148)