Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism

Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism: A Foreign Policy Analysis, 1968-199

Copyright Date: 2000
Pages: 320
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism
    Book Description:

    In Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism Brian Stevenson argues that Canada's foreign policy toward Latin America has been profoundly affected by these three factors and has evolved in response to both changing domestic demands and shifting international circumstances. By analysing a pivotal period in Canada-Latin American relations, he shows us how successive Canadian governments made important initiatives toward closer relationships with Latin America and were also pressured by non-governmental organizations to play a bigger role in the region. Canada's increased role can be seen in official foreign policy commitments, such as the decision to join the Organization of American States, and in policy decisions on political refugees. He explains that while the United States has played a key role in sometimes constraining Canadian foreign policy in the region, it is important to realize that Canadian foreign policy has been steadied by a long-standing tradition of internationalism.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6830-3
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. 1 From Puzzle to policy
    (pp. 3-24)

    The 1970s and the 1980s saw profound changes to the postwar order. Challenges to U.S. dominance in world affairs during this time attracted the attention of many students of international affairs. The rapid decline of the United States as the economic master of the world, which began with the downfall of the Bretton Woods system on 15 August 1971, was accelerated by the oil crisis of the 1970s and exacerbated by the general decline of U.S. industrial capacity. It encouraged some commentators to proclaim that we were in the “post-hegemonic era” and others to pose the fundamental question for U.S....


    • 2 Canada and the Emergence of the New Internationalism
      (pp. 27-58)

      Three important new factors interacted in Canadian foreign policy after 1968. First, with events such as the initiation of Richard Nixon’s “new economic policy” of 1971 and the withdrawal of the United States from Vietnam, signaling the relative decline of that country, Canadian foreign policy makers began to seek greater independence of action and more variety for Canada’s relationships on the world stage. By the late 1960s the international system seemed to be going though an important change that, although not apparently as dramatic as the one created by the end of the World War II, was no less significant...

    • 3 Foreign Policy Analysis: From the 1950s to the 1980s
      (pp. 59-89)

      Few deny that the world is becoming more complex, that international relations today involve patterns and processes unthought of even thirty years ago. Some point to the rise of universal values,² others to the appearance of international society,³ and still others to the emergence of the international citizen.⁴ But if the nature of the international state system is changing, one can no longer focus on states as the sole actors in international relations.⁵ The emergence of transnational institutions and processes have made analysts focus on new sets of variables on the world stage, which traditionally was visualized by some as...

    • 4 Domestic Pressures, External Constraints, and the New Internationalism
      (pp. 90-108)

      A central feature of Canadian foreign policy in the postwar period has been the tension between Canada’s bilateral relation with the United States and its commitment to multilateralism – a tension that has grown since 1968. During the postwar period both of these policy issues were intimately intertwined. Canada shared a worldview with the United States, it helped forge the postwar order, and it was an economic and strategic partner of the United States. When U.S. power and influence began to erode and when the postwar system began to change, Canada was forced to seek a more independent foreign policy. A...


    • 5 Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America: Government Initiatives and Responses, 1968–1990
      (pp. 111-154)

      A coherent Canadian policy towards Latin America has developed only relatively recently: a true interest in the region began to emerge only in the late 1960s. But from then on, Canada’s relations with the region erupted onto the Canadian political scene with increasing frequency, and Canadians’ interest in the region continued to surprise many observers of foreign policy. Latin America became more important to Canada because of domestic interests, as well as external pressures. Canada’s century-long isolation from the hemisphere began to dissolve in 1968 with the beginning of Pierre Trudeau’s foreign policy review and ended with Canada’s entry into...

    • 6 Entering the Inter-American System: Canada and the OAS
      (pp. 155-183)

      On 7 September 1988, Ambassador Richard V. Gorham, Canada’s permanent observer to the Organization of American States and first-ever roving ambassador for Latin America gave a speech to the Permanent Council of the OAS in which he outlined the difficulties surrounding Canada’s entry into the OAS as a permanent member and the reasons why Canada had not joined. He stated that “These reasons reflect at times financial and budgetary priorities, at times concerns about undertaking additional security responsibilities by adhering to the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (the Rio Treaty), at times concerns that full membership might subject us to...

    • 7 Advisors to the Prince? Domestic NGOs and Canadian Foreign Policy
      (pp. 184-203)

      Canada’s foreign policy towards Latin America after 1968 cannot be understood without an investigation into the role that nongovernment organizations have played in attempting to shape that policy. Whether through representations to government officials to admit Chilean refugees after the overthrow of Allende, through grass roots letter-writing campaigns urging the Canadian government to denounce the government of El Salvador, through press conferences accentuating a contradiction in Canada’s foreign policy in Central America, through presentations before parliamentary committees, or, finally, through consultative sessions with parliamentarians and government officials, NGOs became increasingly active in Latin American issues throughout the 1970s, and highly...

    • 8 Conclusion
      (pp. 204-234)

      On Saturday, 8 March 1947, the Canadian under-secretary of state for external affairs, Lester B. Pearson, gave a rather unimportant speech before theHerald Tribuneforum in New York City. It was unimportant for two reasons: the topic, “Canada in the Americas,” was low on the Canadian foreign policy agenda and in the first paragraph of his speech Pearson indicated that he was speaking merely as a Canadian citizen and not as a government official.

      The short speech, given a little over a year before the Pan-American Union (PAU) was transformed into the Organization of American States (OAS), dealt much...

  8. Notes
    (pp. 235-266)
  9. Bibliography
    (pp. 267-282)
  10. Index
    (pp. 283-290)