Sophocles, Use of Psychological Terminology

Sophocles, Use of Psychological Terminology: Old and New

Shirley Darcus Sullivan
Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 323
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt81bc4
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  • Book Info
    Sophocles, Use of Psychological Terminology
    Book Description:

    At once reference text and literary foray, this work is designed to engage both specialists and non-specialists. It offers detailed discussion of the Greek text for those who have a knowledge of the language while also making all readings available in translation and transliterated forms. Sophocles' Use of Psychological Terminology will be an enduring resource for anyone interested in Athenian tragedy and especially for those interested in how the early Greeks viewed what we now think of as psychological activity.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7412-0
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-ix)
  3. TABLES
    (pp. x-x)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. xi-xi)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xii-xiv)
  6. 1 INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-10)

    THIS BOOK WILL TREAT the ways in which Sophocles (born mid-490s, died 406 B.C.) uses psychological terminology. Its specific aim will be to show how his use of this terminology resembles that found both in earlier and contemporary poets and in Aeschylus and also how it differs. The poets will include Homer, Hesiod, the lyric and elegiac poets, Pindar and Bacchylides. References will also be given to theHomeric Hymns.Comparison will not be made with the Presocratics, the fifthcentury historians, Euripides, who will be treated in a separate study, and other tragedians of the fifth century, or writers of...

  7. 2 PHRĒN IN THE TRAGEDIES: PART ONE
    (pp. 11-42)

    OF THE SIX PSYCHIC TERMS that Sophocles uses, he mentionsphrēnmost often. In the seven tragedies and fragments we findphrēn74 times,nous38,thumos35,kardia6,kear5, andpsychē35. Aeschylus similarly usesphrēnfar more frequently than other psychic terms.¹ Our discussion to follow will attempt to show why Sophocles, like Aeschylus, favoured this term. The instances ofphrēnare so many that they will be treated in two chapters.

    In early and contemporary poetsphrēnandphrenesappear often.² Features ofphrēnin this earlier literature are as follows.³

    1. Both the singular and plural of...

  8. 3 PHRĒN IN THE TRAGEDIES: PART TWO
    (pp. 43-60)

    IN THIS CHAPTER the remaining instances ofphrēnthat can be called “traditional and contemporary” will be examined. Then Sophocles’ new uses ofphrēnand also his images of it will be discussed.

    In this section the categories of “Atē” “Evil,” “Good,” and “Justice” will be introduced. Before the analysis of passages that fall into these categories uses in earlier and contemporary poets and in Aeschylus that appear to have a “predominantly moral” connotation will be described. In Homer individuals “know fitting things ἴ (aidi/Aa}" in phrenes (Od. 2.231, 5.9, 14.333). Phrenes themselves may not be "fitting (evcLLOijUOi)"; a person...

  9. 4 NOUS IN THE TRAGEDIES
    (pp. 61-88)

    SOPHOCLES REFERS tonousquite often in his tragedies. He speaks of it 38 times, so that its frequency is comparable to his references tothumos(35) andpsyche(35). In his use of this term he differs markedly from Aeschylus, who mentionsnousonly three times. In what follows the focus will once again be upon what in his usage is traditional and what is new.

    Nousappears quite frequently in early Greek poetry.¹ In Homer and theHomericHymnsit occurs over 100 times; in Hesiod, 26 times.² In the lyric and elegiac poets it appears 82 times, in...

  10. 5 PHRĒN AND NOUS AND THEIR COGNATES IN THE ANTIGONE
    (pp. 89-120)

    IN THEANTIGONEtwo terms and their cognates appear to be of particular importance. This chapter will attempt to illustrate the degree to which this is so and to suggest possible explanations. The bibliography on theAntigoneis enormously rich and offers several different approaches.¹ It has been examined with a focus upon political and theological questions. Its characters have been analyzed in detail. It has been treated as an example of drama with emphasis on questions of presentation. It is a play of many facets. The aim of the present chapter is not to challenge other interpretations of the...

  11. 6 THUMOS, KARDIA, AND KEAR IN THE TRAGEDIES
    (pp. 121-160)

    THE FREQUENCY OF THESE THREE psychic entities in the text of Sophocles is as follows:thumosappears 35 times, being very similar in number tonous(38 times).Kardiaoccurs only 6 times,Kear, only 5 times. Once the extent to which Sophocles' usage may be traditional or new will be discussed.

    thumosis the most common psychic entity that is mentioned in Homer (over 700 times) and in Hesiod (54 times).¹ It also appears very often in the lyric and elegiac poets. In Aeschylus it is found 20 times, more often certainly than nous (3 times) but less often certainly...

  12. 7 PSYCHĒ IN THE TRAGEDIES
    (pp. 161-188)

    AS WAS MENTIONED in Chapter 1,psychēin Homer does not function as a psychological agent active in the living person.¹ It begins to function as such in the lyric and elegiac poets. In Homer and Hesiod and still very often in the lyric and elegiac poetspsychēsignifies the “shade” of the dead person, the “life-spirit” enlivening someone, or more generally the “life” of an individual. Aeschylus refers to psychē 13 times.² All his references reflect the three meanings mentioned above: “shade,”“lire-spirit,” and “life.”

    Sophocles refers topsychē35 times. Of these 35 instances, as we Shall see,14 will...

  13. 8 PSYCHIC TERMS IN EACH TRAGEDY
    (pp. 189-204)

    IN THIS CHAPTER (supplemented by Appendix Two) the psychic entities that appear in each tragedy will be examined. The characters in whom they are found will be particularly noted. This overview will show how the several psychic entities are mentioned in the individual tragedies. Chapters 2 to 7 have examined all instances of each of the psychic terms together. This chapter will show which ones have been found, play by play. The discussion will be accompanied by tables in the notes, showing the characters in whom the psychic entities are present; clearly the importance of these entities is greater in...

  14. 9 CONCLUSION
    (pp. 205-218)

    IN THE FOREGOING CHAPTERS Sophocles’ use of psychological terminology has been examined. Like earlier and contemporary poets and like Aeschylus he speaks of different psychic entities as being responsible for psychological activities. In the seven extant tragedies and fragments he speaks ofphrēn, nous, thumos, kardia, hear,andpsychē,six different psychic entities. He does not refer toētoror toprapides.In this chapter an overview of the use of these psychic entities in Sophocles will be given. The study will conclude with general observations on Sophocles’ use of psychological terminology.

    The following tables, based on the analyses presented...

  15. APPENDIX ONE AN OVERVIEW OF THE PSYCHIC ENTITIES
    (pp. 219-239)
  16. APPENDIX TWO PSYCHIC TERMS IN EACH TRAGEDY
    (pp. 240-252)
  17. APPENDIX THREE ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES WITH PSYCHIC TERMS
    (pp. 253-256)
  18. APPENDIX FOUR COGNATE VERBS, ADVERBS, ADJECTIVES, AND NOUNS
    (pp. 257-264)
  19. APPENDIX FIVE HĒPAR AND SPLANCHNA
    (pp. 265-265)
  20. APPENDIX SIX PHRĒN AND NOUS AND THEIR COGNATES IN THE ANTIGONE
    (pp. 266-274)
  21. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 275-284)
  22. INDEX OF PASSAGES DISCUSSED
    (pp. 285-286)
  23. GENERAL INDEX (ENTRIES IN BOLD INDICATE CHIEF DISCUSSIONS)
    (pp. 287-288)