Johannes Bugenhagen

Johannes Bugenhagen: Selected Writings, Volume 1 and Volume II

Kurt K. Hendel
Copyright Date: 2015
DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9m0v7f
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  • Book Info
    Johannes Bugenhagen
    Book Description:

    Martin Luther did not reform the church by himself. Throughout his life, and in the decades after it, many others spent their careers and risked their lives in the pursuit of a renewed church. They, too, made crucial contributions to the Wittenberg reform movement. In this landmark set, an extensive collection of writings from Johannes Bugenhagen, Luther’s pastor, friend, and colleague in reform, are presented for the first time in English. The vast majority of these works have only been available in their original, sixteenth-century editions. Called by some the Second Apostle to the North, Johannes Bugenhagen (1485–1558) was a pivotal figure in the organization of the Lutheran movement in northern Germany and in parts of Scandinavia. His writings and diverse reforming activity made a lasting impression on church administration, education, the care of the poor, worship, and theology. Representing the fruit of many years of labor, Reformation scholar Kurt K. Hendel has organized this extensive collection thematically—introducing us to Bugenhagen the man, the theologian, the exegete, the pastor, the church organizer, and the social reformer.

    eISBN: 978-1-4514-6978-3
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.1
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.2
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    Kurt K. Hendel
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.3
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Kurt K. Hendel
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.4
  5. Johannes Bugenhagen: Reformer beyond the Limelight
    (pp. 1-76)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.5

    As visitors to Wittenberg amble along the main street of the city that leads from the Lutherhalle to the Castle Church, they will surely notice the large statues of Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon¹ located in front of the old city hall. The prominence of these two reformers in the history of Wittenberg and of the Reformation is symbolized by the size and location of the statues. A short distance from the city hall, on one side of St. Mary’s, the city church of Wittenberg, stands another statue or, more precisely, a bust of Johannes Bugenhagen, popularly known as Pomeranus....

  6. Part I. The Man and His Times
    • 1 Instruction of Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer that the opinion concerning the sacrament that is read in the Psalter translated into German under his name is not his
      (pp. 79-92)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.6

      Wittenberg 1526¹

      (p. 1) [Left margin: In Latin it is writtenAuguste per Martinum Bucerum. This is incorrect. It should readArgentine per Martinum Bucerum, etc.]²

      Instruction of Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer that the opinion concerning the sacrament that is read in the Psalter translated into German under his name is not his.

      My interpretations of the Psalter of David, which I have written in Latin, have been translated into German in Strasbourg by Martin Bucer.³ They were first published in German and printed by Adam Petri in Basel in this year 1526. Several statements and opinions that are not mine...

    • 2 A short history…
      (pp. 93-102)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.7

      (p. 1) A short history, written by both sirs, Dr. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus and Dr. Justus Jonas, about how the blessed man, Dr. Martin Luther has devoted himself to living and dying according to God’s will in great spiritual and bodily struggles. This is useful and comforting to read for all godly hearts who certainly experience their own fear and suffering. 1527¹

      To the venerable Mr. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, our pastor, dearest friend and brother in the Lord.

      It seems to me that this short weakness of our dear father, Dr. Martin, and other episodes that have happened are a...

    • 3 Dr. Johannes Bugenhagen’s answer to the question whether one can wage war for the sake of the gospel in order to defend it with the sword
      (pp. 103-110)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.8

      (p. 289) Dr. Johannes Bugenhagen’s answer to the question whether one can wage war for the sake of the gospel in order to defend it with the sword.¹

      Grace and peace through Christ and my most humble service beforehand to your illumined, right honorable Elector.² Dr. Brück,³ the Chancellor, has submitted this important question and has required that I give my answer to your Electoral Grace in writing. However, since it is a question that concerns the conscience and, in addition, land and people, I confess before God and before Your Electoral Grace that I am much too unimportant to...

    • 4 A Christian sermon over the body and at the funeral of the venerable Dr. Martin Luther, preached by Mr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomeranus, doctor and pastor of the church in Wittenberg
      (pp. 111-124)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.9

      (p. 1) A Christian sermon over the body and at the funeral of the venerable Dr. Martin Luther, preached by Mr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomeranus, doctor and pastor of the church in Wittenberg.

      Paul, the holy apostle, says in 1 Thessalonians 4,

      We do not want to hold back, dear brothers, concerning those who are asleep so that you may not be sorrowful as the others who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus has died and risen, even so, through Jesus, God will bring those with Him who have fallen asleep [1 Thess. 4:13-14].

      (p. 2) Dear friends, I...

    • 5 Christian Admonition of the venerable Sir Doctor Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, pastor of the church in Wittenberg, to the praiseworthy region Bohemia, Silesia and Lusatia
      (pp. 125-134)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.10

      (p. 1) Christian exhortation of the venerable Sir Dr. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, pastor of the church in Wittenberg, to the praiseworthy neighbors of Bohemia, Silesia, and Lusatia.

      Beforehand, gracious and kind lords and good friends, God’s grace through His only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ our Savior. After I learned that our dear neighbors, the lords and cities in the realm of Bohemia, in Silesia, and in Lusatia,² were summoned to war³ (p. 2) and that this cannot be understood otherwise than that the intention is to attack and to lay waste our poor churches, to murder priests and other innocent people,...

    • 6 How we fared in the city of Wittenberg during this past war…
      (pp. 135-164)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.11

      How we fared in the city of Wittenberg during this past war until we were rescued through God’s grace and our University was again established by the most-illumined, right honorable prince and lord, Sir Maurice,¹ Duke of Saxony, Grand Marshall of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector, Landgrave of Döringen, and Margrave of Meissen, our most gracious lord.

      A true history depicted by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, doctor and pastor in Wittenberg, 1547.²

      (p. 1) Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, doctor and pastor in Wittenberg.

      My dear sirs, my friends, brothers, and acquaintances often write to me and request that I might write...

  7. Part II. The Theologian
    • 7 Concerning the high priestly office of Christ and the eternally lasting purification of His blood
      (pp. 167-174)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.12

      (p. 1) Concerning the high priestly office of Christ and the eternally lasting purification of His blood. Hebrews 9.¹

      From the ninth chapter of St. Paul’s epistle to the Hebrews. C.D.²

      However, Christ has appeared as a high priest of the future good things through a greater and more perfect tent, which was not made by hand, that is, which is not of this creation, and also not through the blood of rams or calves because He has entered the holy place once through his own blood and has obtained an eternal salvation. For if the sprinkled blood of bulls...

    • 8 An Open Letter to the Christians in England in which a Christian life is described
      (pp. 175-182)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.13

      An Open Letter to the Christians in England in which a Christian life is described. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer. Wittenberg 1525¹

      (p. 1) Johann Bugenhagen Pomer, pastor of the congregation of Christ in Wittenberg, wishes the saints in Christ who are in England grace and peace from God our Father and our LORD Jesus Christ.

      We had to rejoice, dear brothers, when we heard that the gospel of the glory of God was also received by some in England and that it had a good reputation. In addition, however, it also came to our attention that many weak people are still...

    • 9 Judgment of the churches of Wittenberg… against Osiander
      (pp. 183-190)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.14

      The JUDGMENT of the churches in Wittenberg regarding this book of ours against Osiander. 1552¹

      Isaiah 54: “I see to it that the one who corrupts is destroyed, for all things that are prepared against you will not succeed, and you will condemn in court every tongue that opposes you.” [Isa. 54[:16b-17]]

      (p. 1) To the reader.

      Grace and peace through Christ. The apostles would have been satisfied, dear Christian reader, if they had retained the teaching, strengthened with God’s word and promoted by them for several years, even against the world’s unanimous opinion. And yet, Paul and Barnabas, together...

    • 10 Concerning the Christian Faith and proper good works against the false faith and devised good works
      (pp. 191-360)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.15

      Concerning the Christian Faith and proper good works against the false faith and devised good works. In addition, how one should appoint good preachers so that such love and works are preached. To the honorable city of Hamburg by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer. Corrected a second time with a register.¹ Wittenberg 1526.²

      (p. 1) To the honorable, prudent, wise lord burgomasters, and council members, and to the whole community of the honorable city Hamburg, dear sirs and friends, I, Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer, wish you grace and peace from God the Father and from Jesus Christ our Lord through whom we have...

    • 11 A letter by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer to the very honorable city of Hamburg
      (pp. 361-378)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.16

      A letter by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer to the very honorable city of Hamburg against the lies published by a shameful scoundrel in his first book which he had written to the people of Hamburg. In this letter justification by faith, that is, forgiveness of sins through Jesus Christ our LORD, is also confirmed.¹

      (p. 1) To the honorable and wise sirs, the burgomasters and city council members, and to the whole community of the highly honorable city of Hamburg, his dear lords and gracious friends.

      Grace and peace from God our Father and from Jesus Christ our Lord perpetually beforehand,...

    • 12 A Christian open letter to Lady Anna
      (pp. 379-388)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.17

      A Christian open letter to Lady Anna, born Duchess of Stettin in Pomerania, etc. Summary of Salvation from Holy Scripture by Johannes Bugenhagen from Pomerania, pastor of the church in Wittenberg.¹

      (p. 1) To the noble, right honorable princess and lady, Lady Anna, born in Stettin² in Pomerania, duchess in Silesia in Luben,³ my gracious Lady.

      Grace and peace from God our Father and from our Lord Jesus Christ, noble, right honorable Princess, gracious Lady. I was anxious about writing to Your Grace, not for the sake of temporal honor, for Christ Himself had to ascend the cross for the...

    • 13 The 29th Psalm Interpreted by Dr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer…
      (pp. 389-436)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.18

      The 29th Psalm interpreted by Dr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer. Concerning Infant Baptism is also included. Furthermore, concerning the unborn children and the children who cannot be baptized. A comfort by Dr. Martin Luther for the women who were unsuccessful in giving birth.

      (p. 1) To the most illustrious, exalted, and mighty prince and lord, Sir Christian,² King of Denmark, Norway, of the Wends and Goths; Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Dithmarschen; Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, my gracious lord.

      Grace and peace eternally from God our Father and from Jesus Christ our Lord. Most illustrious, exalted, and mighty king,...

    • 14 Instruction Concerning Private Confession
      (pp. 437-462)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.19

      Johann Pomer

      The Five Questions Regarding the Sacrament¹

      Concerning the honorable Sacrament of the Altar [title within the work]

      [titles not on title page, but also included:]

      Where and what one should say and read to those who lie sick and near death

      Regarding the sacrament of the true body and blood of Christ. Johann Pomer

      A Consolation to the Elector of Saxony of Blessed and Christian Memory on the Friday after Misericordia Domine, the last day of his life here on earth

      The chief articles of the Christian faith expounded by Johann Pomer

      (p. 1) Instruction concerning Private Confession...

    • 15 Concerning the Evangelical Mass
      (pp. 463-480)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.20

      Concerning the evangelical mass. What the mass is. How, through whom, and why it was instituted. Also how one should hear mass and receive the honorable sacrament and why one receives it. 1524.

      A counsel by Mr. Johann Pomer, pastor in Wittenberg, how one should receive the sacrament under one or both kinds

      A summary of Christian righteousness

      Order of the evangelical mass translated into German from the Latin by Mr. Johann Pomer

      How those who marry are introduced before the church by Mr. Johann Pomer in Wittenberg

      (p. 1) The mass is a testament of Christ in which all...

    • 16 Several Christian reflections concerning the mass and other ceremonies
      (pp. 481-490)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.21

      Several Christian reflections concerning the mass and other ceremonies. Johannes Pomeranus; Philip Melanchthon. Wittenberg, 1525.¹

      (p. 1) This is indeed a wonder that the people want to hear and see mass daily and that until now they have neither seen nor heard anything, for one hears Christ when the gospel is preached. One sees Christ when one believes the preached gospel.

      However, Christ has not given the sign, that is, the sacrament of his flesh and blood, to be seen. (I will not mention the fact that one cannot hear the sacrament but only the sermon about it.) Rather, He...

    • 17 An open letter against the new error concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ
      (pp. 491-500)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.22

      An open letter against the new error concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of our LORD Jesus Christ. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer. Wittenberg. 1525.¹

      (p. 1) Johann Bugenhagen Pomer wishes the grace of God through Christ to the highly learned Dr. Johann Hess,² pastor of the congregation of Christ in Breslau.

      Highly learned Sir Doctor, I do not know anything special now that I might write to you at this time except that we gladly desire and always wish that the gospel of the glory of God increase among you through Christ with all humility and gentleness. We also...

    • 18 An open letter by Mr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer, Pastor in Wittenberg, regarding a question concerning the Sacrament
      (pp. 501-510)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.23

      An open letter by Mr. Johann Bugenhagen Pomer, Pastor in Wittenberg, regarding a question concerning the Sacrament.

      Furthermore, an Instruction concerning Confession and Christian Absolution. Wittenberg, 1525¹

      (p. 1) Grace and peace from God our Father and from Jesus Christ our Lord. Dear N,² unknown friend, because we are obliged to serve everyone out of Christian love, I gladly respond to your question whether one may also make use of the sacrament which has been consecrated by priests who do not have the word of God after Christ says, “You are truly my disciples if you remain in my words,...

    • 19 An open letter by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus to the honorable city council of Bremen against the Enthusiasts
      (pp. 511-520)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.24

      An open letter by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus to the honorable city council of Bremen against the Enthusiasts. 1528¹

      (p. 1) To the honorable, respectable, prudent sirs, the burgomasters and council members of the city of Bremen, my gracious sirs.

      Always beforehand, grace and peace from God our Father and from Jesus Christ our Lord. Honorable, respectable, wise sirs, I ask above all that you venerable sirs will be forbearing with this writing of mine and interpret it in the best manner possible. Since your venerable sirs and most of the citizenry love the gospel of Christ (as it is well...

    • 20 Reports of the Disputation in Flensburg concerning the most honorable Sacrament…
      (pp. 521-588)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.25

      Reports¹ of the Disputation in Flensburg concerning the most honorable Sacrament that occurred on Thursday after Quasimodogeniti² in 1529.

      (p. 53) Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer to the reader.

      You can recognize from the reports recorded above,⁴ as you have read, how the disputation regarding the most worthy sacrament of the body and blood of Jesus Christ took place in Flensburg between Melchior Hoffman⁵ and his followers and the pastors or clergy of the region at the command of his Royal Majesty⁶ who was at that time in Flensburg. Although these reports were recorded most diligently by six notaries,⁷ (p. 54) as...

    • 21 Against the Thieves of the Cup
      (pp. 589-754)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.26

      Against the Thieves of the Cup. Written in Lübeck by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus. Wittenberg, 1532¹

      (p. 1) Against the Thieves of the Cup, produced by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus in Lübeck.

      Always beforehand, grace and peace from God through Jesus Christ, dear N.,² your brother N., my gracious friend, has often asked me diligently to write to you about the meaning of the sacrament that is received among you without the cup of the Lord, etc. Although he has written my judgment to you, you are still not yet satisfied but also want to see it written in my own hand...

  8. Part III. The Exegete
    • 22 The first Psalm of David…
      (pp. 757-776)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.27

      The first Psalm of David interpreted in Latin by Johannes Bugenhagen the Pomeranian diligently translated¹ into German according to the translation of Dr. M. Luther. Wittenberg, 1524.²

      (p. 1) To the honorable, wise Gotthart Buttner, citizen and member of the council³ in Zwickau, my particularly gracious lord and kind, dear brother-in-law.⁴

      Grace and peace from God through Christ Jesus our Savior.

      Gracious, dear sir and brother-in-law, I still remember well what I discussed with Your Dignity concerning our soul’s salvation and bliss, namely, that a Christian life is based on faith and love alone, so that we relate and ascend...

    • 23 A beautiful revelation of the antichrist
      (pp. 777-796)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.28

      A beautiful revelation of the antichrist. 1524¹

      A beautiful explication regarding the second chapter of Paul’s second Epistle to the Thessalonians concerning the antichrist by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus

      (p. 2) Those who do not want Paul’s words regarding apostasy to be spoken of the pope’s realm, as we see in this time, should step forward and judge the tree by the fruit, as our Savior teaches [Matt. 7:16-20; Luke 6:43-45]. This aforementioned realm is so unjust in our time. It has also confirmed for a long time such unjust things which oppose the gospel and has commanded the observation of...

    • 24 Concerning the realm and priesthood of Christ. The 110th Psalm of David
      (pp. 797-840)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.29

      Concerning the realm and priesthood of Christ. The 110th Psalm of David.

      (p. 1) Preface to a good friend.

      Grace and peace from God and from our Lord Jesus Christ especially good friend and patron. You request instruction about this place in the Epistle to the Hebrews concerning the priesthood of Melchizedek [Heb. 5:1-10]. I am greatly pleased about this because I hope that God the Almighty will change your situation and also give you desire and love for His holy word. However, this place concerning which you inquire is not one of the least. Indeed, it is almost the...

  9. Part IV. The Pastor
    • 25 Concerning the Marriage of Bishops and Deacons
      (pp. 843-986)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.30

      Concerning the Marriage of Bishops and Deacons to Sir Wolfgang Reissenbusch of the order of St. Anthony, the skillful doctor and teacher in Lichtenberg.

      (p. 1) To the very learned Sir Wolfgang Reissenbusch,² of the Order of St. Anthony, the skillful Doctor and Teacher at Lichtenberg, his gracious lord in Christ, Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer wishes grace and peace from God our Father and our LORD Jesus Christ.

      [Left margin: Romans 12] Very learned Sir Doctor, since all things are common to friends, indeed, since it behooves Christians that they rejoice with the joyful and weep with those who weep [Rom....

    • 26 A very useful little book concerning monastic chastity and Christian confession to be read by every Christian as a comfort. Furthermore, an instruction concerning Christian absolution
      (pp. 987-1042)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.31

      A very useful little book concerning monastic chastity and Christian confession to be read by every Christian as a comfort. Furthermore, an instruction concerning Christian absolution.¹

      (p. 1) [Left margin: The negligence of the spiritual prelates] Dear sirs and friends in Christ, we see that our contemporary spiritual prelates, as well as all superiors of Orders, sleep or are so deaf and blind that no one wants to take interest in and have pity on the poor, young, foolish people nor point them to the proper proscription of monastic vows and to proper Christian confession, on which two matters not...

    • 27 What one should think about monastic life
      (pp. 1043-1104)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.32

      What one should think about monastic life, written particularly for the nuns and Beguines from Holy Scripture by Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer in Wittenberg. 1529¹

      (p. 1) Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer

      I have gladly produced this instruction from divine Scripture for the consciences that are ensnared by the monastic life, especially for the poor children who are called nuns or Beguines,² who are surely led into this way of life with great ignorance under an appearance of holiness, so that they may know what one should think about everything related to such a life before God and so that the parents may...

    • 28 Marriage Matters
      (pp. 1105-1158)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.33

      (p. 1) Marriage Matters. Concerning Adultery and the Secret Desertion

      To the most illumined, high and mighty prince and lord, Sir Christian; King of Denmark, Norway, the Wends and the Goths; Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and the Ditmarschen; Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, my most gracious lord, I, Dr. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomer, wish grace and peace from God our Father and from Jesus Christ our LOrd.

      (p. 2) Most illumined, high and mighty King, most gracious lord, much has been written about marriage matters since the emperors and temporal authorities had to be concerned about them and were responsible...

    • 29 Admonition to all Pastors and Preachers of the Gospel in Electoral Saxony
      (pp. 1159-1178)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.34

      Admonition to all Pastors and Preachers of the Gospel in Electoral Saxony. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus, Doctor and Pastor in Wittenberg. 1556¹

      (p. 1) Admonition to all Pastors and Preachers of the gospel in Electoral Saxony.

      Beforehand, God’s grace through His only-begotten Son Jesus Christ our Savior and true Helper.

      Worthy, dear friends, although I do not doubt that you yourselves contemplate with great pain the diverse distress and misery of the poor, highly sorrowful Christendom, including common and special punishments, war, the ruin of government, destruction, murder, imprisonment, devastation, conflict, poverty, high cost of living, sicknesses, etc., and you sigh...

  10. Part V. The Church Organizer and Social Reformer
    • 30 The Christian Order of the honorable city of Braunschweig
      (pp. 1181-1400)
      DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.35

      The Christian Order of the honorable city of Braunschweig to the service of the holy gospel, Christian love, discipline, freedom, and unity. There is also much Christian instruction within it for the burghers.

      In this Order good schools are established which have, unfortunately, deteriorated everywhere or are not used properly. Yet they are necessary for the youth. It is also necessary to appoint good preachers of the gospel in all the churches. They are necessary. How can we be Christians otherwise? However, if it is necessary to have such offices in the schools and churches, then it is also necessary,...

  11. Index of Subjects and Names
    (pp. 1401-1420)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.36
  12. Index of Biblical References
    (pp. 1421-1458)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.37
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. 1459-1459)
    DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt9m0v7f.38