Between Yesterday and Tomorrow

Between Yesterday and Tomorrow: German Visions of Europe, 1926-1950

Christian Bailey
Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 274
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  • Book Info
    Between Yesterday and Tomorrow
    Book Description:

    An intellectual and cultural history of mid-twentieth century plans for European integration, this book calls into question the usual pre- and post-war periodizations that have structured approaches to twentieth-century European history. It focuses not simply on the ideas of leading politicians but analyses debates about Europe in "civil society" and the party-political sphere in Germany, asking if, and how, a "permissive consensus" was formed around the issue of integration. Taking Germany as its case study, the book offers context to the post-war debates, analysing the continuities that existed between interwar and post-war plans for European integration. It draws attention to the abiding scepticism of democracy displayed by many advocates of integration, indeed suggesting that groups across the ideological spectrum converged around support for European integration as a way of constraining the practice of democracy within nation-states.

    eISBN: 978-1-78238-140-2
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. ix-xi)
  4. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xii-xiv)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-22)

    Without knowing what lay in the future, the late 1980s may have seemed as good a time as any to review the history of European integration. In 1987, two years before Europe’s Cold War barriers would unexpectedly collapse, the historian Wilfried Loth took stock of this history in the preface to a documentary account of European integration. This volume was commissioned by the European University Institute, a European Community (EC) venture nestled in the hills above Florence. According to Loth, such a project could help the EC, ‘too often seen in purely technocratic terms’, to acquire ‘an historical self-awareness and...

  6. Chapter 1 Making the Case for Europe: Transnational Organizations and Cultural Journals
    (pp. 23-53)

    Walking through the foyer of the Titania Palace cinema in Berlin-Steglitz today, it might be hard to imagine the ‘hunger for culture’ felt by Germans in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War or how this venue satisfied it. Yet this present-day Cineplex, which escaped the effects of the bombing that destroyed much of central Berlin, was the site of the first post-war concert of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra, given in May 1945 and attended by over one thousand audience members who came on foot or by bike.¹ Listening to Mendelssohn’sMidsummer Night’s DreamOverture or Tchaikovsky’s Fourth Symphony,...

  7. Chapter 2 The Defence of Europe in Merkur: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Europäisches Denken
    (pp. 54-85)

    Baden-Baden has long been feted as ‘Europe’s Summer Capital’ or the ‘World Spa in the Black Forest’.¹ However, in the late 1940s, it did not seem such a playground for European elites to easily intermingle. The head of the French occupation forces, General Pierre Koenig, could enjoy the still excellent facilities on offer at his base in the Brenner’s Parkhotel. Yet most Germans in the town were struggling to find enough food, failing until autumn 1948 to secure the 1550 calories per day set by the occupation authorities as a minimum requirement. With the French military requisitioning apartment blocks and...

  8. Chapter 3 The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund: From World Revolution to European Federalism
    (pp. 86-114)

    When setting up their desk and office space most writers do not have to think of how to organize furniture so that they can quickly escape if they return home to trouble. For Fritz Eberhard of the Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund (International Socialist Vanguard) (ISK), who was living in Berlin in the mid 1930s without German citizenship papers, this was his first concern. The room he chose, and which he left only once in four years during daylight, was deemed suitable largely because he could walk through the front door and leave straight through the window, escaping into the fields directly...

  9. Chapter 4 The Rise and Fall of a Socialist Europe: The ISK and the SPD in Opposition
    (pp. 115-144)

    Amidst the waving of flags and the ringing of bells that signalled the end of the war in Europe, a feeling lingered among many German exiles that there was more fighting to be done. Alongside the reports on the signing of the armistice in May 1945, journalists forDie Zeitung,a German newspaper published in wartime London, pinpointed the prominent Nazis still at large while also highlighting the struggles being made to reeducate Germans. Chronologies of the Nazi aggression, usually counted down in ever decreasing units of time (‘after five years, eight months and five days’), seemed to imply that...

  10. Chapter 5 ‘An Island Surrounded by Land’: Das Demokratische Deutschland in Switzerland
    (pp. 145-171)

    Impassioned and embattled, speaking out against the violence of the radical Right, Joseph Wirth urged on his listeners with a call to: ‘Democracy! But not the democracy that bangs on the table and says: “We are in power!” No, rather the democracy that patiently, in every situation, seeks to serve the cause of freedom in its own, unhappy land … In this sense all hands and every mouth should be stirred to destroy this atmosphere of murder, strife and poison in Germany.’¹ Wirth was speaking as Federal Chancellor of Germany in the Reichstag, shortly after the murder of Germany’s first...

  11. Chapter 6 ‘Europe our Fatherland, Bavaria our Heimat!’: Das Demokratische Deutschland and the Post-war Trajectories of European Federalism
    (pp. 172-197)

    The exact route taken by the chauffeur, Emmy Rado, who drove Wilhelm Hoegner and Allen Dulles back to Germany in an OSS jeep in June 1945, is not known. Driving from Zurich to Munich, it is nevertheless likely that the group will have skirted around the south-eastern foot of Lake Constance, through the Vorarlberg region. In this western tip of Austria, the High Alemannic dialect spoken, which, difficult for most Austrians to understand, might have confused them into thinking they were still in Switzerland. From there, they will probably have climbed up through the Allgäu Alps, past the drainage basin...

  12. Conclusion
    (pp. 198-210)

    Many histories of the European Union or of Europeanization use the familiar format of telling a story ‘Fromsomethingtosomething’, as in ‘From Consolidation to Enlargement’ or ‘From Messina to Maastricht’.¹ This book, by contrast, has suggested that European integration should be analysed not only as a series of events and negotiations that make up a seemingly linear political history from, say, the ECSC to the EU. Instead, it should be studied as a broader and less unidirectional cultural and intellectual history of encounters and cooperations between European peoples, organizations and institutions across the course of the twentieth century.²...

  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 211-240)
  14. Index
    (pp. 241-260)