Crises in European Integration

Crises in European Integration: Challenges and Responses, 1945-2005

Edited by Ludger Kühnhardt
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 176
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  • Book Info
    Crises in European Integration
    Book Description:

    While the major trends in European integration have been well researched and constitute key elements of narratives about its value and purpose, the crises of integration and their effects have not yet attracted sufficient attention. This volume, with original contributions by leading German scholars, suggests that crises of integration should be seen as engines of progress throughout the history of European integration rather than as expressions of failure and regression, a widely held assumption. It therefore throws new light on the current crises in European integration and provides a fascinating panorama of how challenges and responses were guiding the process during its first five decades.

    eISBN: 978-1-84545-882-9
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Editorial Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Jane Caplan, Timothy Garton Ash, Jürgen Kocka, Gerhard A. Ritter, Nicholas Stargardt and Margit Szöllösi-Janze
  4. Introduction European Integration: Success through Crises
    (pp. 1-18)
    Ludger Kühnhardt

    The European Union discovers its opportunities and encounters its global challenges in a way that recalls the work of Henry the Navigator in the fifteenth century: he sailed around Cape Bojador with hesitancy, limited knowledge and caution, without clear goals and yet with a yearning to learn what might lie behind the Cape. In the fifteenth century, Europe brought about the first wave of globalization. In the early twenty-first century, it seems to be the other way around: globalization seems to slowly bring about a new rationale for European integration as it forces the EU to learn faster, to look...

  5. 1 Sources of European Integration: The Meaning of Failed Interwar Politics and the Role of World War II
    (pp. 19-32)
    Wilfried Loth

    When some sixty years ago in his famous Zurich speech of September 19, 1946, Winston Churchill called for the building of “a kind of United States of Europe,” he was arguing in light of the failures of the past. As he said:

    The League of Nations did not fail because of its principles or conceptions. It failed because these principles were deserted by those States who had brought it into being. It failed because the Governments of those days feared to face the facts, and act while time remained. This disaster must not be repeated. There is therefore much knowledge...

  6. 2 The Failure of EDC and European Integration
    (pp. 33-48)
    Manfred Görtemaker

    When, on August 30, 1954, the French National Assembly refused to ratify the treaty on the establishment of a European Defense Community (EDC), the French “veto” was widely interpreted as a fateful setback in the process of European integration. Bitter disappointment mixed with a gloomy outlook to the future. “The European Defense Community has broken down in the face of French opposition,” Ludwig Erhard, the German Vice-Chancellor and Minister for Economic Affairs in the German Federal Republic, noted in September 1954: “The integration tide is no longer running high, and we may well ask ourselves whether we shall have to...

  7. 3 The Institutional Paradox: How Crises Have Reinforced European Integration
    (pp. 49-60)
    Jürgen Elvert

    On June 17, 2005, a visibly deeply disappointed President of the European Council, Jean Claude Juncker, commented on the failure of the Brussels summit in the following words: “Europe is not in a state of crisis, it’s in a state of profound crisis.”¹ To a certain extent Juncker’s statement was the answer to an analysis which the then German Foreign Minister Fischer had given a fortnight earlier, in a speech at the American Academy in Berlin, saying that Europe was, with regard to the failed European constitutional referendums in France and the Netherlands, in a difficult situation but certainly not...

  8. 4 Through Crises to EMU: Perspectives for Fiscal Union and Political Union
    (pp. 61-78)
    Jürgen von Hagen

    According to popular critique of European monetary integration, often voiced in the 1990s and still part of the public debate today, the stability of a monetary union requires a political and a fiscal union among the member states. In this context, fiscal integration is commonly understood as the implementation of a tax and transfer system of a significant size spanning the European Monetary Union (EMU) member countries. Political integration is understood to mean the creation of more competent and effective political institutions at the center of the EMU. Steps in both directions, fiscal and political union, would push the EU...

  9. 5 Opportunity or Overstretch? The Unexpected Dynamics of Deepening and Widening
    (pp. 79-94)
    Wolfgang Wessels and Thomas Traguth

    The evolution of the European construction over the last five decades is a subject of high interest and causes both fascination and frustration. We start with a puzzle. On the one hand, it is not surprising to find that the breakdown of large federations is often accompanied by the creation and resurgence of smaller political units possessing proud national histories and identities. It is, however, somewhat counter to this conventional wisdom to observe that more and more nation states of Europe have been transferring or sharing their sovereignty—at least partially—thereby shifting some kind of loyalty to a new...

  10. 6 Learning from Failure: The Evolution of the EU’s Foreign, Security and Defense Policy in the Course of the Yugoslav Crisis
    (pp. 95-108)
    Mathias Jopp and Udo Diedrichs

    The evolution of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) has been analyzed intensively in the last fifteen years, particularly in the perspective of Treaty reforms and institutional adaptation.¹ What still remain promising to investigate are the driving forces and motivations that lie behind procedural and institutional dynamics of the CFSP. A key explanation for the reform of the CFSP in response to major external shocks is offered by the concept of policy learning, which has gained in prominence in recent years, particularly in the wake of discovering the merits of constructivist perspectives on the EU and its foreign...

  11. 7 Challenges and Opportunities: Surmounting Integration Crises in Historical Context
    (pp. 109-130)
    Michael Gehler

    The launch of the internal market by Jacques Delors in 1985, the Single European Act (SEA) of 1987, and the signing of the Maastricht Agreement in 1992 have fed a rich variety of new impulses into the politics of integration: in 1993 the “four freedoms” ushered in the realization of the Single Market; in 1999 twelve European states introduced the single currency (euro); 2004 saw the admission of ten new member states and the EU Constitutional Treaty was agreed by all twenty-five heads of state or government.¹

    Historians and political scientists interested in integration have had difficulty keeping up with...

  12. 8 Frontiers and Chances for the European Union
    (pp. 131-142)
    Hans-Gert Pöttering

    No other invitation in British academic life could attract me more than the opportunity to deliver the annual Adenauer Lecture at the European Studies Centre, here at St. Antony’s College, Oxford. It is not just that it is a great honour to follow in the footsteps of so many distinguished predecessors, over many years. It is that—for me personally—it is especially inspiring to give a talk dedicated to the memory of Konrad Adenauer—one of the founding fathers of today’s Europe, to whom my country owes so much—and one delivered here in the European Studies Centre of...

  13. Select Bibliography
    (pp. 143-156)
  14. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 157-162)
  15. Index
    (pp. 163-168)