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Anti-liberal Europe

Anti-liberal Europe: A Neglected Story of Europeanization

Edited by Dieter Gosewinkel
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 210
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  • Book Info
    Anti-liberal Europe
    Book Description:

    The history of modern Europe is often presented with the hindsight of present-day European integration, which was a genuinely liberal project based on political and economic freedom. Many other visions for Europe developed in the 20th century, however, were based on an idea of community rooted in pre-modern religious ideas, cultural or ethnic homogeneity, or even in coercion and violence. They frequently rejected the idea of modernity or reinterpreted it in an antiliberal manner. Anti-liberal Europe examines these visions, including those of anti-modernist Catholics, conservatives, extreme rightists as well as communists, arguing that antiliberal concepts in 20th-century Europe were not the counterpart to, but instead part of the process of European integration.

    eISBN: 978-1-78238-426-7
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. x-x)
  5. Part I. Concepts

    • Introduction Anti-liberal Europe – A Neglected Source of Europeanism
      (pp. 3-32)
      Dieter Gosewinkel

      The history of how today’s Europe developed is presented from the present-day perspective, from that of the current form of European integration: a democratic, politically integrated structure based on the rule of law and economic freedoms, growing prosperity and voluntary membership. This structure is characterized by common values in the canon of classical rights to freedom and the obligation for peace. It reflects how, after 1945, the European integration process foreswore excessive violence, pronounced nationalism, and the policy of excessive and authoritarian state control that destroyed freedom during the first half of the century.

      Renunciation of what was perceived as...

    • 1 The Elusiveness of European (Anti-)liberalism
      (pp. 33-44)
      Michael Freeden

      There are many alternative versions of European integration that do not deserve the adjective ‘liberal’ (or possibly even the descriptor ‘integration’). Liberals have not been the only ones to support some version of a common Europe, a point that Dieter Gosewinkel has demonstrated in this book not only with impressive and illuminating historical breadth, but with ethical fervour. To be anti-liberal is not necessarily to be anti-European. In emphasizing the input of political systems outside the liberal family into the ideas and practices of European integration, the intellectual challenge becomes, as he sees it, to examine side-by-side some of the...

  6. Part II. Anti-liberalism:: A Feature of Colonial and Conservative Concepts of Europe

    • 2 Europe as a Colonial Project: A Critique of its Anti-liberalism
      (pp. 47-71)
      Fabian Klose

      The victory of the Allied armed forces on 8 May 1945 sealed the fate of Hitler’s totalitarian concept of a ‘New Order’ in Europe.¹ The success of the Allies ended Nazi rule over the Continent once and for all, and this moment was celebrated with due exuberance in the countries formerly occupied by German troops. Also in colonial Algeria, which had been considered an integral part of France since 1871 and therefore a naturalprolongementof the French republic in North Africa, masses of people gathered in the streets to celebrate fittingly the victory their concerted effort had achieved.


    • 3 Facing the Future Backwards: ‘Abendland’ as an Anti-liberal Idea of Europe in Germany between the First World War and the 1960s
      (pp. 72-89)
      Vanessa Conze

      It is fundamental for any discussion regarding ideas of Europe to accept that the history of the idea of Europe is, for much of the twentieth century, the history of ideas of Europe: a history marked by a broad plurality of ideas, models and concepts of European understanding and of the political and economic unification of the continent. In contrast to the now dominant idea of a democratic and pluralist Europe, until well into the 1950s ideas of Europe could cover much wider ideological ground. Only in recent years has this plurality of ideas attracted scholarly attention. Concepts of Europe...

    • 4 The Call for a New European Order: Origins and Variants of the Anti-liberal Concept of the ‘Europe of the Regions’
      (pp. 90-102)
      Undine Ruge

      There are lively ongoing discussions about a new narrative for Europe – a story to tell to make (more) sense of the European integration process and its institutional outcome, the European Union. This often goes hand in hand with the demand for ‘more Europe’. The call for ‘(more) Europe’ to rescue the Europeans (Civilization! The World!) is a constituent part of the history of ideas of Europe, and can often be interpreted as the sign of a current crisis. Yet, as clearly shown in this volume, the call for Europe is not necessarily rooted in democratic, liberal or progressive motives;...

  7. Part III. Anti-liberal Europe in Dictatorships and their Aftermath

    • 5 The ‘New European Order’ of National Socialism: Some Remarks on its Sources, Genesis and Nature
      (pp. 105-127)
      Jürgen Elvert

      National Socialist spatial policy has attracted scholarly research for decades. Many approaches to research have been tested and applied, with varying success.¹ Works that focus on the National Socialist period tend to blind out certain elements that may demonstrate that National Socialist foreign policy was composed of a series of elements, some of them directly related to National Socialist ideology, others may well be considered as forms of expression of much longer lasting ideas. The U.S. historian Henry Cord Meyer was among the first to point out the impact of reflections on Mitteleuropa (Central Europe) for the emergence of a...

    • 6 Three Kinds of Collaboration: Concepts of Europe and the ‘Franco-German Understanding’ – The Career of SS-Brigadeführer Gustav Krukenberg
      (pp. 128-156)
      Peter Schöttler

      This chapter deals with the history of a single person, who is, however, interesting in a larger framework. He is hardly known, even by historians, except by specialists in one of the various areas in which he was active: Franco-German relations, broadcasting, the Second World War or prisoners of war (Heimkehrer). But even in relevant publications, Gustav Krukenberg (1888–1980), is only referred to marginally – if at all: thus he is a background figure. But precisely because he is such a figure, because he appears again and again in very different places, he is perhaps almost representative in his...

    • 7 Communist Europeanism: A Case Study of the GDR
      (pp. 157-178)
      Jana Wuestenhagen

      Even in 2004, when the eastern enlargement of the European Union was on the political agenda, not much was known about the former Eastern Bloc states’ concepts of Europe.¹ Meanwhile, several studies have shown that there was not just one united picture of Europe in the Eastern Bloc.² Nevertheless, political leaders’ official positions remained remarkably stable in their rejection of Europe as a supranational unity, leading to a rather stiffened political sphere from the 1950s to the mid-1980s. In the cultural sphere, however, in opposition discourses and in the minds of the people, diverse ideals and images of Europe existed....

  8. Afterword The Limits of an Anti-liberal Europe
    (pp. 179-190)
    Martin Conway

    Can there be right and wrong Europes? Europe has never been neutral, and one of the principal strengths that a distinctively historical perspective can bring to the analysis of European unification is to emphasize the way in which all such processes – be they those of Napoleon, of Versailles, of the wartime Third Reich or of the EEC – have always been indelibly marked by particular sets of values. Seen in this way, the role of historians is to subvert teleologies of integration focused on the present day by exploring both the historical genealogy of contemporary ideas of Europe, and...

  9. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 191-194)
  10. Index
    (pp. 195-200)