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Wind Over Water

Wind Over Water: Migration in an East Asian Context

David W. Haines
Keiko Yamanaka
Shinji Yamashita
Copyright Date: 2012
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 284
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  • Book Info
    Wind Over Water
    Book Description:

    Providing a comprehensive treatment of a full range of migrant destinies in East Asia by scholars from both Asia and North America, this volume captures the way migrants are changing the face of Asia, especially in cities, such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Hamamatsu, Osaka, Tokyo, and Singapore. It investigates how the crossing of geographical boundaries should also be recognized as a crossing of cultural and social categories that reveals the extraordinary variation in the migrants' origins and trajectories. These migrants span the spectrum: from Korean bar hostesses in Osaka to African entrepreneurs in Hong Kong, from Vietnamese women seeking husbands across the Chinese border to Pakistani Muslim men marrying women in Japan, from short-term business travelers in China to long-term tourists from Japan who ultimately decide to retire overseas. Illuminating the ways in which an Asian-based analysis of migration can yield new data on global migration patterns, the contributors provide important new theoretical insights for a broader understanding of global migration, and innovative methodological approaches to the spatial and temporal complexity of human migration.

    eISBN: 978-0-85745-741-7
    Subjects: Sociology, Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. x-x)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
    David W. Haines, Keiko Yamanaka and Shinji Yamashita
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-18)
    David W. HAINES, Shinji YAMASHITA and J.S. EADES

    This book focuses on the dynamics, trends, and meanings of East Asian migration, paying particular attention to the ways in which East Asian migration is important in its own right but also to how it can complement the broader literature on migration research and theory. The East Asian material is especially helpful, for example, in indicating the interaction between internal and international migration (thus helping to reunite two long-separated areas of human movement), the degree to which out and in-migration often offset each other (thus counterbalancing the common emphasis on immigration alone), and the extent to which migration is of...

  8. Part I: Migrants, States, and Cities

    • CHAPTER 1 Human Trade in Colonial Vietnam
      (pp. 21-35)
      Nicolas LAINEZ

      If one looks at the archives, it is clear that history can be a useful tool in the understanding of the modern phenomena of human trafficking. These practices, widespread over the Indochinese peninsula a century ago, and so aptly described by colonial administrators, have not disappeared from contemporary Asia according to observers, researchers, and anti-trafficking campaigners. In fact, today’s practices resemble what was taking place a hundred years ago to such a great extent that the arguments of those aid organizations who claim this problem is anchored in recent processes of globalization must be challenged. Instead, the similarities and parallels...

    • CHAPTER 2 Wind through the Woods: Ethnography of Interfaces between Migration and Institutions
      (pp. 36-46)
      XIANG Biao

      Migration constitutes an interesting subject for study for at least two interrelated reasons. First, migration flows appear elusive, amorphous, and constantly changing. Second, migrants are often dislodged from the established systems of how the host society is organized (e.g. trade unions or neighborhood organizations). States thus face multiple challenges in understanding, controlling, and caring for migrants. This renders migration studies particularly difficult: how can we make sense of something that is by definition unstable and exceptional?

      Following the time-honored sociological metaphor that likens society to the woods, we may consider migration as gusts of wind through the woods. In the...

    • CHAPTER 3 Migrant Social Networks: Ethnic Minorities in the Cities of China
      (pp. 47-59)
      ZHANG Jijiao

      The year 2008 marks the thirtieth anniversary of China’s economic reform. According to China’s National Bureau of Statistics, by 2005 about 150 million migrant workers had moved to cities from rural areas in search of jobs, and the number will reach 200 million by 2015 and 250 million by 2025 (Fan 2008). It is not well known that a large proportion of these urban migrants are from China’s ethnic minority communities. However, it is worth noting that, according to an incomplete census at the end of 2008, the population of resident and migrant minorities in China’s nearly seven hundred cities...

    • CHAPTER 4 Migration and DiverseCity: Singapore’s Changing Demography, Identity, and Landscape
      (pp. 60-77)
      Brenda S.A. YEOH and Theodora LAM

      A city-state with explicit globalizing ambitions and orientations, Singapore in many respects continues to be “rooted in the condition of colonial pluralism” (Goh 2008: 236). Since the city’s birth as a trading emporium in the nineteenth century, Singapore has been associated with a cosmopolitan demography, culture, and landscape first engendered by a liberal open-door policy on immigration during the colonial regime, and later re-engineered to fuel a planned program of economic growth and nation-building after independence. At the turn of the nineteenth century, the population residing within the municipal boundaries of the colonial city comprised a 74 percent Chinese majority...

    • CHAPTER 5 A Transnational Community and Its Impact on Local Power Relations in Urban China: The Case of Beijing’s “Koreatown” in the Early 2000s
      (pp. 78-91)
      Kwang-Kyoon YEO

      “Wangjing Road” (wangjingjie: 望京街), a newly built eight-lane street around the center of the Wangjing area, is one of the symbols of “New Wangjing,” a suburb of Beijing. On both sides of the road are rows of giant billboards just above the neatly arranged concrete walk for pedestrians. One sign shows an enlarged colorful picture of the blue sky and white skyscrapers rising behind a meadow with a crystal blue pond. Red Chinese characters over the picture say, “Construct New Beijing, Welcome New Olympics, Develop New Chaoyang, Build New Wangjing” (建设新北京, 迎接新奥运, 发展新潮阳, 打造新望京). Another sign displays white Chinese characters...

    • CHAPTER 6 Immigration, policies, and Civil Society in Hamamatsu, Central Japan
      (pp. 92-106)
      Keiko YAMANAKA

      The literature on Japan’s civil society has recently grown in volume, broadened in scope, and deepened in analysis. Scholars have discussed the history, social organization, and relationships between the state and Japanese voluntarism in such areas as the environment, consumerism, religion, and social welfare (see Schwartz and Pharr 2003). Transnational migration, immigrants’ rights, and multiculturalism are topics that have been added to this list since the late 1980s, when an influx of foreign migrant workers arrived in Japan.¹ Increasing incidents of industrial accidents, unpaid wages, and human rights violations met by undocumented immigrant workers, many of whom were victimized by...

  9. Part II: Family, Gender, Lifestyle, and Culture

    • CHAPTER 7 Multiple Narratives on Migration in Vietnam and Their Methodological Implications
      (pp. 109-124)
      Hy V. LUONG

      Since the end of the command economy with its system of subsidized food rationing in cities, rural-to-urban migration in Vietnam has quickly accelerated. According to official censuses, the net migration inflow to Hồ Chí Minh City, the largest urban center and the biggest magnet for migrants all over Vietnam, increased from 14,872 a year from 1984 to 1989, to about 100,000 a year in the 1989–1999 period, and over 200,000 a year from 1999 to 2004 (see Luong 2009a). By 2004, those who were classified as migrants numbered 1.6 million and officially made up 30 percent of the urban...

    • CHAPTER 8 Cross-Border Marriages between Vietnamese Women and Chinese Men: The Integration of Otherness and the Impact of Popular Representations
      (pp. 125-137)
      Caroline GRILLOT

      When one talks about cross-border marriages between Vietnamese women and Chinese men in southern China, economic conditions and demography are often, if not always, emphasized to explain the frequency of such unions in modern history and, more specifically, in recent decades. However, many aspects of this phenomenon are rarely, if ever, considered, such as the way in which communities along each side of the Chinese-Vietnamese frontier view their neighbors; their degree of appreciation and understanding of one another; their representation of women, men, romance, and marriage; and the impact of these factors on the phenomenon of cross-community alliances, status, and...

    • CHAPTER 9 Achieving and Restoring Masculinity through Homeland Return Visits
      (pp. 138-149)
      Hung Cam THAI

      This chapter deals with the varied ways in which Vietnamese working class immigrant men remake class and masculinity by returning to visit their homeland. I contend that while research on transnationalism has become increasingly important since the early 1990s in guiding much of the current research on international migration, little has been theorized about the significance and consequences of return visits by migrants to the community of origin, especially how such visits are notably gendered social moments and processes. The subjects of this chapter are Vietnamese immigrant men who were part of a larger study on the emergence of a...

    • CHAPTER 10 Mothers on the Move: Transnational Child-Rearing by Japanese Women Married to Pakistani Migrants
      (pp. 150-160)
      Masako KUDO

      This chapter explores a newly emerging pattern of transnational living among Japanese-Pakistani mixed marriages. This pattern is one in which the Pakistani husband continues to be based in Japan, while the Japanese wife and their children move to the husband’s natal household in Pakistan or to a third country. The family members then frequently cross national borders to visit each other. The majority of these mixed couples were married during the 1990s. In many cases, the husbands had already overstayed their visas at the time they met their future wives. For these men, marrying local women was one of the...

    • CHAPTER 11 Here, There, and In-between: Lifestyle Migrants from Japan
      (pp. 161-172)
      Shinji YAMASHITA

      “Long-stay,” the term Japanese use for international retirement migration/tourism, has been coming to the fore in the recent Japanese international tourist market. Against the background of an aging society with a falling birthrate and increasing life expectation, and the high cost of living in Japan, people worried about their lives after retirement have been increasingly moving abroad to places such as Hawaii, Australia, and particularly Southeast Asian countries. There they seek more meaningful lives with a lower cost of living and a warmer climate. This chapter examines this recent trend in Japanese international tourism/migration, dealing particularly with the Japanese elderly...

    • CHAPTER 12 Moving and Touring in Time and Place: Korean National History Tourism to Northeast China
      (pp. 173-188)
      Okpyo MOON

      Tourism increasingly provides a major context for people’s movement, culture contact, and social change. As migration research has broadened its scope to include the mobility of not only people and objects but also cultures, more and more tourism researchers are witnessing the realities of how the movements of peoples, objects, and cultures interact, even during relatively short sojourns (Rojek and Urry 1997; Lindquist 2009). Furthermore, many longer-term migrants, or those who will visit again for other purposes, initially enter a foreign country with a tourist visa. As they travel and tour the host culture, they are in many ways in...

  10. Part III: Work, Ethnicity, and Nationality

    • CHAPTER 13 In the Shadows and at the Margins: Working in the Korean Clubs and Bars of Osaka’s Minami Area
      (pp. 191-207)
      Haeng-ja Sachiko CHUNG

      In this chapter, I discuss the unique spatial and temporal constellations of an emerging Korean ethnic business community in Japan. From fall 2000 to summer 2001, I resided in an area called Shimanouchi, which was a mixed residential and commercial area on the eastern border of Minami (meaning “south” in Japanese). Minami is north of Namba Station, one of the largest stations in Osaka. It is one of the oldest and largest entertainment districts in Japan, dating back to the early seventeenth century, nearly four hundred years ago. Formerly a formal ward of the city, it became a part of...

    • CHAPTER 14 African Traders in Chungking Mansions, Hong Kong
      (pp. 208-218)
      Gordon MATHEWS

      Over the past decade there has been a massive increase in African traders coming to south China (Pawson 2005; Zhou 2006; French and Polgreen 2007) and to Hong Kong, particularly to Chungking Mansions, where I have been doing research over the past four years. Chungking Mansions is a ramshackle seventeen-story building with around 170 wholesale goods dealers on its first two floors and 120 cheap guesthouses and restaurants on its upper floors; some 2,000 African traders may stay there on any given night, and sometimes shop and live there for weeks at a time. In this chapter, I examine the...

    • CHAPTER 15 Negotiating “Home” and “Away”: Singaporean Professional Migrants in China
      (pp. 219-228)
      Brenda S.A. YEOH and Katie WILLIS

      In recent years, studies of transnational labor migration have broadened their focus from the movement of low-skilled workers across international boundaries to include the increasing numbers of professionals and managers engaged in work-related migration in association with the intensification of economic globalization processes. Emphasis on the hyper-mobility of these elite transnational subjects has tended to depict them as mobile individual careerists circulating in an intensely fluid world of intra- and inter-firm transfers and career mobility. While definitions are somewhat elusive, these “knowledge nomads,” circulating “talent workers,” “transnational capitalist class,” or “transnational elites” are often constructed relationally to the “knowledge economy.”...

    • CHAPTER 16 “Guarded Globalization”: The Politics of Skill Recognition on Migrant Health Care Workers
      (pp. 229-240)
      Mika TOYOTA

      This chapter seeks to unearth some of the hidden political and cultural logics of globalization that emerge in the case of the transnational migration of health care workers (nurses and qualified long-term care workers for the elderly) to Japan and Singapore. While care work is increasingly commodified in the global gendered labor market (Brown and Connell 2004; Browne and Braun 2008; Gamble 2002; Kingma 2006, 2008; Zimmerman, Litt and Bose 2006), what constitutes “skill” in care work is strictly regulated by state policies (Bach 2003; Hardill and MacDonald 2000; Iredale 2001, 2005; Raghuram and Kofman 2002) and, in particular, by...

  11. Conclusion
    (pp. 241-256)
    Keiko YAMANAKA, David W. HAINES, J. S. EADES, Nelson GRABURN, WANG Jianxin and Bernard P. WONG

    In their conclusion toThe Age of Migration, Castles and Miller (2009: 299) note the increasing ubiquity and significance of international migration throughout the world today. East Asia is no exception. As this volume amply demonstrates, owing to the region’s rapid economic development, in the past three decades cross-border migration in the region has grown immensely in its volume, frequency, and complexity. As a result, the region’s contemporary migration patterns are fluid and flexible in forms, categories, goals, directions, and durations. An examination of East Asian migration – its causes, processes and consequences – therefore requires multi-level, multi-faceted, and multi-sited research with...

  12. About the Contributors
    (pp. 257-262)
  13. Index
    (pp. 263-270)