Latin America Facing China

Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus

Alex E. Fernández Jilberto
Barbara Hogenboom
Copyright Date: 2010
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 216
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  • Book Info
    Latin America Facing China
    Book Description:

    The last quarter of the twentieth century was a period of economic crises, increasing indebtedness as well as financial instability for Latin America and most other developing countries; in contrast, China showed amazingly high growth rates during this time and has since become the third largest economy in the world. Based on several case studies, this volume assesses how China's rise - one of the most important recent changes in the global economy - is affecting Latin America's national politics, political economy and regional and international relations. Several Latin American countries benefit from China's economic growth, and China's new role in international politics has been helpful to many leftist governments' efforts in Latin America to end the Washington Consensus. The contributors to this thought provoking volume examine these and the other causes, effects and prospects of Latin America's experiences with China's global expansion from a South - South perspective.

    eISBN: 978-1-84545-949-9
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. In Memoriam
    (pp. xi-xi)
    Barbara Hogenboom
  6. Preface
    (pp. xii-xiv)
    Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom
  7. 1 Latin America and China: South-South Relations in a New Era
    (pp. 1-32)
    Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom

    The rise of China might be the most important single event in the world’s recent economic developments. To most developing countries, the last quarter of the twentieth century was ‘dominated’ by economic crises, increasing indebtedness and financial crises, political instability and a profound shift of development model that did not produce the ‘expected’ results, but to China this period stood for quite something different: an amazingly high and continuous economic growth, an increasing budget and trade surplus, political stability, and all of this based on a profound shift of development model that produced more results than anyone had imagined. In...

  8. 2 Brazil and China: From South-South Cooperation to Competition?
    (pp. 33-54)
    Henrique Altemani de Oliveira

    At the beginning of the 1990s, two specific factors influenced Brazil to adjust its international insertion strategy. The first factor was the end of the Cold War and the subsequent international restructuring process aimed at redefining the International System, including the emergence of new rules that reconfigured patterns in international relations. The second factor was Brazil’s adhesion to the liberal trade system, which involved a process of opening up its internal market and reforming the state.

    As a result of these developments, East Asia began to represent a strategic area in Brazil’s international insertion process, with important economic and political...

  9. 3 Mexico vs. China: The Troublesome Politics of Competitiveness
    (pp. 55-76)
    Barbara Hogenboom

    For most developing countries, neoliberal globalisation has proven to involve a series of powerful processes that cause an ongoing flow of drastic and swift changes. Mexico is no exception to this tendency. In the early 1990s, when Mexico and the United States were negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), there were serious US concerns about the ‘sucking sound’ from Mexico: labour unions and others feared that opening the border with Mexico would come at the cost of extensive US job losses due to cheap Mexican labour. Less than a decade later, however, Mexico itself started to experience a...

  10. 4 Neoliberalised South-South Relations: Free Trade between Chile and China
    (pp. 77-98)
    Alex E. Fernández Jilberto

    The contemporary relations between China and Latin America differ radically from that of the 1980s. During that decade, the Asian giant gradually initiated its diplomatic and political offensive, aimed at creating privileged economic relations with the region. China drastically changed its strategy toward Latin America: it replaced its approach of exporting Maoism with economic pragmatism, thereby enabling itself to develop good diplomatic relations with Latin America’s military dictatorships. Since then, Latin American countries generally went through processes of neoliberalisation and democratisation. Subsequently, the end of the 1990s, with the electoral victory of Hugo Chávez in 1998, marked the beginning of...

  11. 5 Argentina’s Relations with China: Opportunities and Challenges
    (pp. 99-114)
    Carla V. Oliva

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, China rose as a key global player with increasing political, economic and military power. China has gone through an exceptional journey, from poverty, a communist revolution and international insertion based on ideological criteria, to economic growth, political institutionalisation and international insertion based on economic priorities. This was possible due to the economic reforms carried out since 1978 by Mao’s successor, Deng Xiaoping, who gave priority to economic development and modernisation based on economic and political opening. As a result, China has grown at an average annual rate of 10 per cent for more...

  12. 6 China and Venezuela’s Search for Oil Markets
    (pp. 115-134)
    Javier Corrales

    For a while now, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez has had high hopes for relations with China. In his effort to ‘soft balance’ the United States (Romero and Corrales 2010; Williams forthcoming), Chávez has elevated relations with China to almost national priority. He considers deepening ties with China as vital for constructing a more ‘multipolar world’, lessening Venezuela’s dependence on US markets for oil (Wilpert 2004), saving Venezuela from becoming the ‘backyard of any empire’ and accelerating Venezuela’s transformation into a ‘world power country’. Venezuela’s strategy of ‘using oil’ to create a more multipolar world is not exclusively focused on China....

  13. 7 Bridging the Pacific: Peru’s Search for Closer Economic Ties with China
    (pp. 135-152)
    Rubén Berríos

    Relations between Peru and China can be traced to the mid nineteenth century, when Chinese labourers in huge numbers arrived to work in Peru’s sugar plantations and on the Guano islands during the boom years (Chang-Rodriguez 1958; Rodriguez Pastor 2000). This was to be the first wave of immigration from China to Latin America. Commercial contacts and a friendship agreement were signed in 1874. The Chinese have been in Peru for over 150 years and comprise one of the major foreign communities in the region.

    A key link in the development of stronger ties with Asia has been the significant...

  14. 8 Bolivia and China: Indirect Relations in a Global Market
    (pp. 153-166)
    Pablo Poveda

    Since the mid 1990s, Asia has rapidly risen as an important trade zone for Bolivia, with Japan as Bolivia’s primary Asian export destination. For a long time, Bolivia’s trade and investment relations with China remained remarkably low compared to other Latin American countries. While Bolivia and China have had diplomatic relations since 1985, it is only since 2003 that their bilateral economic relations have become a priority for the two governments. This showed most clearly in January 2006, when Evo Morales visited China shortly before his inauguration as president. At this occasion, the Bolivian president-elect met with President Hu Jintao...

  15. 9 Central America between Two Dragons: Relations with the Two Chinas
    (pp. 167-180)
    Gabriel Aguilera Peralta

    The countries of Central America are an important group among the nations that still hold diplomatic relations with Taiwan Province of the Republic of China, also known as the Republic of China, or simply Taiwan.¹ Even though this is economically unfavourable to Central America, the governments of the Isthmus have maintained their policy of recognising Taiwan and fostering the political and economic links with Taiwan instead of establishing bonds with the People’s Republic of China. This occurs on a bilateral as well as multilateral level within the framework of Central American integration initiatives. The reasons for this pro-Taiwan policy are...

  16. 10 Latin America – from Washington Consensus to Beijing Consensus?
    (pp. 181-194)
    Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom

    In Latin America, the effects of China on their economies and their strategies for insertion into the global economy are heavily debated. There are several important incentives for this debate: China’s successes in the global competition among developing countries for foreign direct investment; its transformation into a decisive (f)actor in fixing international prices for commodities; its role as a global point of reference in the productive strategies of large transnational companies; and its rise as an essential component of the world market and international development. Various studies consider China as a threat to Latin American strategies of transforming into an...

  17. Contributors
    (pp. 195-198)
  18. Index
    (pp. 199-202)