Europe at the Seaside

Europe at the Seaside: The Economic History of Mass Tourism in the Mediterranean

Luciano Segreto
Carles Manera
Manfred Pohl
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 304
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  • Book Info
    Europe at the Seaside
    Book Description:

    Mass tourism is one of the most striking developments in postwar western societies, involving economic, social, cultural, and anthropological factors. For many countries it has become a significant, if not the primary, source of income for the resident population. The Mediterranean basin, which has long been a very popular destination, is explored here in the first study to scrutinize the region as a whole and over a long period of time. In particular, it investigates the area's economic and social networks directly involved in tourism, which includes examining the most popular spots that attract tourists and the crucial actors, such as hotel entrepreneurs, travel agencies, charter companies, and companies developing seaside resort networks. This important volume presents a fascinating picture of the economics of tourism in one of the world's most visited destinations.

    eISBN: 978-1-84545-911-6
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xii)

    The original idea for an economic history of mass tourism in the Mediterranean came from Professor Carlos Manera and Professor Luciano Segreto. The time seemed ripe for an exploration into what has become the world’s biggest industry – the tourism industry. A conference was organized at the University of Mallorca with contributions from leading academics in the field of European tourism and mass travel. The results of this conference have now been collated in this volume to be published together for the first time. The book is ultimately intended to constitute the definitive guide to the academic study of tourism in...

  5. Introduction The Mediterranean as a Tourist Destination: Past, Present, and Future of the First Mass Tourism Resort Area
    (pp. 1-10)
    Carles Manera, Luciano Segreto and Manfred Pohl

    The history of tourism has become an increasingly popular research topic in recent years as books on tourism and especially its importance in shaping modern societies have gained wider interest among both academics and the wider reading public. Whereas early research naturally dealt with the fascinating, but also rather elitist, eighteenth-century concept of the “Grand Tour,” and those tours that followed in the nineteenth century,¹ recent studies in tourism have moved to the history of mass tourism, a phenomenon deeply rooted in the twentieth century and the “era of the masses” and democratic society. The beginnings of mass tourism can...

  6. Chapter 1 Flying Visits: The Growth of British Air Package Tours, 1945–1975
    (pp. 11-30)
    Peter Lyth

    Two closely interwoven threads in the economic and social fabric of the twentieth century are the development of the international tourist industry and the growth of commercial air transport. As international tourism became the largest single industry in the world, so air travel became popular and “democratized,” with the tourist replacing the businessman as the typical passenger.¹ Ineconomicterms, the trend was an important part of the shift in employment and investment from manufacturing to the service sector; as asocialchange it is comparable to the effect in Britain of the railways on Victorian society. Air transport caused...

  7. Chapter 2 The Transformation of the Economic Model of the Balearic Islands: The Pioneers of Mass Tourism
    (pp. 31-48)
    Carles Manera and Jaume Garau-Taberner

    The great transformation of the Balearic economy started in the mid-1940s and lasted until the first oil crisis in 1973. In fact, these decades redefined the model of economic growth in the islands. From 1960 on there was a real economic upsurge, fueled and stimulated by the spectacular development of the European economy. The islands’ secure income was a determining factor, even though it is not the only explanation. Moreover, it was no longer to be the conventional products of the countryside or the urban workshops that would favor the change; it was theforeigner industry,to use the visionary...

  8. Chapter 3 Tourism and Business during the Twentieth Century in Greece: Continuity and Change
    (pp. 49-71)
    Margarita Dritsas

    Because this chapter was originally prepared for a conference on business history (BH) and tourism, I shall start by pointing out that BH is a new area of interest for historians in Greece. Its development spans barely two decades, institutionalization is low, and the number of studies produced is limited. BH is seen as a sub-branch of economic and social history and has found a good base in the banking sector.¹ A limited spillover can be discerned in the study of Greek industry.² Most other areas or sectors have not interested historians or businessmen to the same extent, with even...

  9. Chapter 4 The Development of the Portuguese Hotel Business, 1950–1995
    (pp. 72-89)
    Benedita Câmara

    This chapter focuses on the development of the Portuguese hotel business between 1950 and 1995. Some writers decry the entrepreneurial fabric of the package vacation and mass tourism business in favor of city tourism. The first is described as fragmented, averse to multinationalization of the ownership of hotels, largely dependent on tour operators, and highly labor intensive. City-business tourism on the contrary is characterized by a high level of multinationalization of the ownership of hotels, which leads to high level of investments in capital goods and economy in the use of labor. The evolution of the Portuguese hotel business confirms...

  10. Chapter 5 Sending the Italians on Vacation: The Alpitour Group
    (pp. 90-103)
    Luciano Segreto

    In 1997 there were about 39,000 travel agencies in the European Union. Predominantly located in Central and Northern Europe, most of them were small independent travel agencies offering global services (see table 5.1). Only a few of them could be considered tour operators, who offered specialized services both directly and through the travel agencies. In Italy in that year a survey listed close to 350 tour operators. In 1998 they produced a global revenue of €1.5 billion, rising in 1996 to 2.25 billion. In 1996 roughly two-thirds of that revenue was produced by the top ten firms in the list,...

  11. Chapter 6 Rimini: An Original Mix of Italian Style and Foreign Models?
    (pp. 104-124)
    Patrizia Battilani

    Rimini is a medium-size town on the Adriatic coast, which in the second half of the twentieth century became the main Italian seaside tourist destination. Rimini’s tourism history is very interesting for many reasons. First, because of its long history as a tourist resort that dates back to the first half of the nineteenth century, second, for its extraordinary skill in changing its image, product, and variety of holidays, third, because of its organizational model that has always been based on small businesses instead of large corporations and finally, because of the attention paid to the experience of other resorts:...

  12. Chapter 7 The Expansion Strategies of the Majorcan Hotel Chains
    (pp. 125-143)
    Antoni Serra

    Tourism in the Balearics has experienced tremendous growth since the 1960s. At the beginning of that decade, in a Europe where air transport was highly regulated, with extremely high fares that made it nearly impossible for medium income classes to travel, tour operators found a way to make holiday travel affordable for wide sectors of the European population.

    The Chicago Convention of 1944 established the framework for international civil transport aviation in the following decades. At the Chicago Convention, it was thought that non-scheduled flights would have no significant economic importance in the future.¹ Therefore, they were only slightly regulated....

  13. Chapter 8 The French Group Accor and Tourism since 1967: Business Tourism without a Mass Tourism Strategy
    (pp. 144-173)
    Hubert Bonin

    “The Accor paradox” provides a key argument in the study of the history of the services industry as Accor is deeply involved in tourism through a wide range of tourist activities without actually having a clear business tourism strategy. If we consider tourism not only as leisure time enjoyed by businessmen/women after their working day but also as activities dedicated to entertainment, vacation time of any duration, tour operating, and so on, the Accor Group lacks any real power in that market segment in the face of huge British and German competition. If hotel tourism means entertainment, journeys and stays...

  14. Chapter 9 Club Méditerranée, 1950–2002
    (pp. 174-195)
    Ellen Furlough

    In early 1950, posters in Paris advertised a new vacation experience: “For 15,000 Francs: Vacation in the Balearic Islands with Club Méditerranée … a new and friendly vacation program, a comfortable tent village, the most beautiful sites in the Mediterranean, a large and devoted staff, all Mediterranean sports, fast and comfortable journey, quality entertainment.” Club Med’s founder, Gérard Blitz, was astonished by the response to his advertisements. Attracted by the innovation of paying a single, low cost (around $40) for transportation, food, accommodations, sports, and entertainment in a Mediterranean locale, some 2,400 people signed up for the two-week vacation adventure...

  15. Chapter 10 Tourism on the French Riviera
    (pp. 196-205)
    Philippe Mioche

    Mass tourism has been one of the main economic successes of the French economy since World War II. An increasing number of French citizens were traveling within the country; and an increasing number of foreigners were coming to visit. Inside France, the Provençal region, which comprised six departments from 1972 on,¹ became the second most popular tourist destination after Paris. In Provence, a large proportion of mass tourism was concentrated on the French Riviera, a thin strip of territory of 250 kilometers long by 30 wide. The French Riviera, partly the old county of Nice, is mainly situated in two...

  16. Chapter 11 Tourism on the Costa del Sol
    (pp. 206-232)
    Carmelo Pellejero Martínez

    The aim of this chapter is to analyze the historical evolution of tourism on the Costa del Sol, on the Southern coast of Spain, since its origins at the end of the nineteenth century until the present day. There are several different opinions regarding the extent of the Costa del Sol. Initially, the Costa del Sol was the stretch of coastline between Torremolinos and Estepona, both towns in the province of Málaga. Later, but then its boundaries were extended. The Costa del Sol then included the entire coastline from Tarifa in Cádiz to Almería. However, as time went on, the...

  17. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 233-235)
  18. Bibliography
    (pp. 236-243)
  19. Index
    (pp. 244-252)