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Japanese Tourism

Japanese Tourism: Spaces, Places and Structures

Carolin Funck
Malcolm Cooper
Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 256
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  • Book Info
    Japanese Tourism
    Book Description:

    The changing patterns of Japanese tourism and the views of the Japanese tourist since the Meiji Restoration, in 1868, are given an in-depth historical, geographical, economic and social analysis in this book. As well as providing a case study for the purpose of investigating the changing face of global tourism from the 19th to the 21st Century, this account of Japanese tourism explores both domestic social relations and international geographical, political and economic relations, especially in the northeast Asian context. Socio-cultural and geographical analysis form the research framework for the book, in three ways: first, there is an emphasis on scale as tourism phenomena and their implications are discussed both in a global context and at the national, regional and local levels; second, the discussion is informed by primary data sources such as censuses and surveys; and third, the incorporation of fieldwork and case studies adds concreteness to the overall picture of Japanese tourism. This book is a significant addition to an area of study currently under-represented in the literature.

    eISBN: 978-1-78238-076-4
    Subjects: Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. Figures and Tables
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. IX-X)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. XI-XI)
  6. Chronology
    (pp. XII-XII)
  7. 1 Introduction to Japanese Tourism
    (pp. 1-9)
    Carolin Funck and Malcolm Cooper

    Many often-repeated stereotypes about the Japanese and their behaviour as tourists – such as ‘Japan is a group oriented society in which travel traditionally has been undertaken in groups’ (March 2000: 188), or ‘the Japanese have a low sense of cultural self-confidence and they usually only travel in groups or visit well-known “culturally approved” attractions’ (Graburn 1995: 48) – have long characterized the European and American ‘gaze’ (Urry 1990) on the Japanese as a tourist-generating nation. In part these stereotypes have arisen as a result of the early pattern of controlled departure from Japan to Europe and North America (see Chapters 2...

  8. 2 The Roots of Japanese Travel Culture
    (pp. 10-39)
    Carolin Funck

    The Japanese are inveterate tourists, not only throughout much of the world but particularly within Japan itself, but though the fact of international tourism has been obvious to other countries, ‘it is less well known that the Japanese have had a very long history of domestic tourism’ (Graburn 1983: 2). In this chapter we trace and interpret the history of Japanese tourism. Although it is acknowledged that Japan saw the very early development of forms of mass tourism consisting of a combination of pilgrimage and sightseeing (Ishimori 1989; Cooper et al. 2008), Japan’s appearance on the international stage of tourism...

  9. 3 The Rules of the Game: Policy, Plans and Institutions for Tourism
    (pp. 40-61)
    Malcolm Cooper

    The role of the state in the development and promotion of tourism is an important topic of discussion in many countries (Hall 2000; Cooper and Flehr 2006), but there is much disagreement on its nature and powers, and of the relevance of the policies it espouses. Reviewing earlier writings, Hall (2000: 10–15) argued that tourism policy making is first and foremost a political activity, influenced by the economic, social and cultural characteristics of a particular society, and by the formal structures of government and other features of its national and local political system. This policy-making process may be seen...

  10. 4 Domestic Tourism and its Social Background
    (pp. 62-95)
    Carolin Funck

    In this chapter the analysis shifts to domestic tourism, tracing changing travel flows and travel patterns through the economic ups and downs of the postwar era. While the domestic market has long been characterized as having strong cultural signifiers and well-established forms of mass tourism, recent years have seen a diversification within it that is closely connected to social changes. We also analyse the multifaceted social relations which have characterized local tourism, be it within destinations or between hosts and guests.

    Japan has undergone extreme changes in population distribution and structure during the postwar years. From a largely rural society...

  11. 5 The Travelling Yen
    (pp. 96-138)
    Malcolm Cooper

    This chapter explores in more depth the economic dimensions of Japanese tourism. The structure of the tourism industry and how it intertwines with regional economies, tourism as a tool for regional development, and tourism as an economic strategy in the context of deindustrialization and an ageing society are its foci. The interface of tourism and leisure industries in urban areas is also examined. It should be noted at the outset that the issues discussed here relate to one of the Asia Pacific region’s most developed economies, one that, until recently, did not focus on inbound tourism to any great extent....

  12. 6 The Japanese Gaze on the World
    (pp. 139-159)
    Malcolm Cooper

    This chapter documents the development and strength of Japanese outbound travel, long a mainstay of several tourism destinations around the world and one still eagerly competed for (ABTR 1990; Bolkus 1991; Mak and White 1992; Kobayashi 2003; Kômoto 2004). It pays attention to the changing patterns of Japanese and North Asian international tourism as a result of the transformation of consumption patterns in the region, and notes the influence of position in the life cycle on international trips and particular destinations. Another important factor has been the influence of terrorism and potential disease epidemics on the consumption of international travel...

  13. 7 Welcome to Japan
    (pp. 160-186)
    Carolin Funck

    In contrast to the rapid development of outbound tourism since the 1980s, inbound tourism has played a minor role in the development of tourism in Japan, especially since the Second World War. An exception was the Meiji period, when foreigners from Western countries became involved in the rapid modernization process of the country and brought with them Western forms of leisure. Starting in late 2002, the Japanese government embarked once again on a policy of actively enticing foreign tourists. However, this stands in contrast with continuing restrictive policies on labour migration and immigration issues, which has created a conundrum for...

  14. 8 Multiple Futures for Japan’s Tourism
    (pp. 187-209)
    Carolin Funck and Malcolm Cooper

    In Japan and elsewhere, several new forms of tourism have emerged in the twenty-first century. Some of these, like green (rural) tourism, adventure tourism, andmangaandanimétourism figure prominently in advertisements, media and policies but in reality form a rather small market segment. Others have yet to be officially adopted in Japanese, but can be clearly distinguished as phenomena; for example, the emergence of local volunteer guides or visits to sites of destruction connected to war and environmental hazards. Finally, World Heritage Site designation has developed into a powerful tool in a market highly sensitive to cultural markers...

  15. 9 Conclusions: Retrospect, Challenges and the Future
    (pp. 210-215)
    Malcolm Cooper and Carolin Funck

    Our analysis of tourism in Japan has shown that it has a long and varied history, with several lines of continuity that define its nature even today. For example, the fundamental contours of present-day domestic tourism are found in the earlier patterns of religious pilgrimage andonsenvisits during the Edo period, even though the duration of the latter has been significantly shortened due to changes in the world of paid work, and the former has metamorphosed into local festivals (matsuri) and away from religion. The bulk of visitor flows in Japan, however, remain clearly directed towards the former religious,...

  16. Glossary
    (pp. 216-216)
  17. References
    (pp. 217-234)
  18. Index
    (pp. 235-243)