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State Practices and Zionist Images

State Practices and Zionist Images: Shaping Economic Development in Arab Towns in Israel

David A. Wesley
Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 276
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  • Book Info
    State Practices and Zionist Images
    Book Description:

    Although the Israeli state subscribes to the principles of administrative fairness and equality for Jews and Arabs before the law, the reality looks very different. Focusing on Arab land loss inside Israel proper and the struggle over development resources, this study explores the interaction between Arab local authorities, their Jewish neighbors, and the agencies of the national government in regard to developing local and regional industrial areas. The author avoids reduction to simple models of binary domination, revealing instead a complex, multi-dimensional field of relations and ever-shifting lines of political maneuver and confrontation. He examines the prevailing concept of ethnic traditionalism and argues that the image of Arab traditionalism erects imaginary boundaries around the Arab localities, making government incursion disappear from view, while underpinning and rationalizing the exclusion of the Arab towns from development planning. Moreover, he shows how images of environmental protection mesh with and support such exclusion. The study includes a chronology of events, tables, maps, and photographs.

    This revised paperback edition with a new epilogue brings accounts of Arab land loss and struggles for economic development up to date. The author also deals with the challenges of life and research in Israel and examines the possibilities of sharing the land as the homeland of both Jews and Palestinians.

    eISBN: 978-0-85745-907-7
    Subjects: Anthropology, Political Science, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xi)
    Emanuel Marx

    Max Weber took a deep and lasting interest in the workings of organizations (Verbände). While he wrote long essays on the stock exchange, the calling of politics, the industrial worker, and protestant sects, his favorite theme was the administration of states. He studied the running of both historical states, such as traditional China, and contemporary states, such as the Germany of his time, in intimate detail. Analyses of government, power, and authority crop up in all his works. Yet none of these profound and learned studies made an impact equal to that of the relatively concise and highly abstract discussion...

  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xii-xiv)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  8. Introduction: An Ethnography of Macro-order Power Relations
    (pp. 1-16)

    This research monograph offers an analysis of the field of power relations in which Arab economic development in Israel takes place. One striking indicator of stunted economic development is the fact that Arab towns predominate overwhelmingly in the lower rungs of Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) ranking of Israeli localities by their populations’ socioeconomic level (CBS 1999; Sikkuy 1996; see table 2.1 in chapter 2, this volume).

    Here in Israel, the law promises equal access to development; officials deny that there is discrimination and go on to declare that discrimination would be unacceptable. I contend that one needs to...

  9. CHAPTER 1 The Lay of the Land (I): The Territorial Demon
    (pp. 17-40)

    On a December day in 1993, I stood at the second-story window of the offices of the Center for Strategic Planning in the Arab Municipalities in Kafar Kanna, looking west toward the Phoenicia glass factory under construction in Zipporit, Upper Nazareth’s large new industrial park. The center of Upper Nazareth lay about 6 km to the south, but that city had recently been reaching out with a new industrial area and a new residential development at Har Yona to its northeast. Now, it had leapfrogged due north over the territory of its Arab neighbors—Reine, Meshhed, and Kafar Kanna—to...

  10. CHAPTER 2 The Lay of the Land (II): Urban Drive and the Arab Towns
    (pp. 41-78)

    Chapter 2 will take up the elements having to do with municipal authorities and their budgets and infrastructure, and with local economic development. It will be shown how these elements form a second dimension (in addition to the geographic dispositions dealt with in the preceding chapter) of the position of the Arab towns in the field of power relations. Chapter 1 dealt with Galilee; the present chapter relates to the Arab local authorities throughout Israel.¹ The chapter will conclude with a brief consideration of some theoretical aspects of the concept of the disposition of forces and its ability to handle...

  11. CHAPTER 3 The Zipporit Industrial Area
    (pp. 79-106)

    I turn now to the case of the Zipporit industrial area. As set out in the brief scene that opened chapter 1 (the reader may care to glance again at the opening pages of that chapter [see figure 1.1]), Upper Nazareth had leapfrogged over the territory of the Arab towns to its north to establish in 1992 that expansive industrial area, virtually in the backyard of its Arab neighbors and on land that had served the Arab townspeople in earlier times.

    The establishment of Zipporit was the result of development planning¹ by national bodies and the vigorous pursuit of urban...

  12. CHAPTER 4 Land, Territory, and Jurisdiction: The Experience of Land Loss
    (pp. 107-133)

    It will be recalled that in the course of protesting against the establishment of the Phoenicia glass factory and negotiating with Upper Nazareth and representatives of the national government, Kafar Kanna and Meshhed entertained expectations that they would be admitted to Zipporit as partners right from the beginning. The best-case scenario for the Arab representatives was that Zipporit A would be reconstituted as a joint industrial park without waiting for the later stage at which the two Arab towns would have statutory plans and development on land in their own jurisdictions to contribute to the joint park.

    But Menahem Ariav,...

  13. CHAPTER 5 The Image of Arab Traditionalism
    (pp. 134-150)

    I turn now to a consideration of the discursive image of Arab traditionalism as it is applied to and impacts on economic development. The image of Arab tradition finds its way into scholarly studies of Arab entrepreneurship; it pervades and shapes Ministry of Industry perceptions of Arab actors on the local scene; it equips the actors themselves with a ready formulaic interpretation of events such as the request by Meshhed landowners that planning for an industrial area on their land be halted. I will attempt to show how multiple, complex, real factors rather than “cultural traits” or “cultural identity” lay...

  14. CHAPTER 6 The Appropriation of Arab Development Needs and Potential
    (pp. 151-167)

    I turn now to the appropriation of Arab town development needs and potential by the Jewish settlements planted in the midst of Arab population centers in Galilee. I refer particularly to Upper Nazareth, established in 1957, and to Karmi’el, established in 1964, the latter located in the center of Biq‘at Bet Hakerem (see figures 1.1 and 7.1). It is perhaps ironic that the themes of regional development, as distinguished from locality-specific development, and regional integration will be seen to lie at the heart of this discussion.

    In 1977, a Ministry of Housing planning team produced a study titledAccelerated Urban...

  15. CHAPTER 7 Attempts to Break Through the Boundaries
    (pp. 168-188)

    The bid by Kafar Kanna and Meshhed to join the Zipporit industrial area was not the only move of its kind, though it is certainly the most prominent, in part by virtue of the clearly visible political maneuver mounted by the Arab towns and their leaders. Such participation might be seen as an attempt to break through the boundaries separating Jewish development from Arab development as set byAUDG. The Ministry of the Interior and its boundary commissions, and later, the Ministry of Industry were involved in varying degrees and ways in such moves. This chapter will take up these...

  16. Conclusion
    (pp. 189-197)

    This study of practice, image, and power began in the field by looking at events that brought together two Arab towns in Galilee—Kafar Kanna and Meshhed—and their large Jewish neighbor, Upper Nazareth. Kafar Kanna was one of the places in which the Ministry of Industry was carrying out a program of establishing small, local industrial areas in Arab localities. At the same time, Upper Nazareth had reached northward and was building, with government assistance, its own large industrial park just beyond the boundaries of the two Arab towns. Arab protest, driven both by a sense of being besieged...

  17. EPILOGUE TO THE NEW EDITION Jews and Palestinians Separate or Together?
    (pp. 198-215)

    It is now 2012, six years afterState Practices and ZionistImages was first published, and even longer since the events it deals with. For this new concluding epilogue of this revised edition, I would like to call on the talk I gave in Great Britain in February of this year.¹

    That talk was not meant to be a summary of the book. For example, it did not review the important issue of the land regime and Palestinian land loss in Israel. With the image of Arab traditionalism, it dealt only partially. It did mention how that image was invoked...

  18. Chronology of Events
    (pp. 216-226)
  19. Notes
    (pp. 227-242)
  20. Glossary: Locality and Related Terms
    (pp. 243-244)
  21. References
    (pp. 245-259)
  22. Legislation Cited
    (pp. 260-261)
  23. Subject Index
    (pp. 262-273)
  24. Selected Author Index
    (pp. 274-276)