Sagalassos VI

Sagalassos VI: Geo- and Bio-Archaeology at Sagalassos and in its Territory

P. Degryse
M. Waelkens
Series: Sagalassos
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: Leuven University Press
Pages: 336
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qdxzk
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  • Book Info
    Sagalassos VI
    Book Description:

    Since 1990, the ancient city of Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey has been the focus of an interdisciplinary archaeological research project coordinated by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The papers collected in this volume reveal how the meticulous systematic and interdisciplinary reconstruction of the ecology and economy of the site and its territory has enhanced our understanding of the ancient settlement and its inhabitants beyond the traditional aspects of classical archaeology in Asia Minor. Highlighting geo-archaeological, archaeometrical, and bio-archaeological work performed within the framework of excavations and surveys between 1996 and 2006, this important book's insights greatly enhance the promotion of real interdisciplinarity in classical archaeology.

    eISBN: 978-94-6166-047-3
    Subjects: Archaeology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. GEO- AND BIO-ARCHAEOLOGY AT SAGALASSOS AND IN ITS TERRITORY
    (pp. 1-14)
    Marc WAELKENS

    The papers presented in this volume offer an insight in the basic geo-archaeological, archaeometrical and bio-archaeological research performed since the publication of volume V (Waelkens and Loots, 2000) within the framework of the excavations and surveys in and around the ancient city of Sagalassos (SW Turkey) and its 1.200 km² large territory carried out between 1996 and 2006. Sagalassos has been the focus of interdisciplinary, archaeological research coordinated by Marc Waelkens of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven since 1990 (Waelkens, 1993; Waelkens and Poblome, 1993; 1995, 1997; Waelkens and Loots, 2000). Starting in 1985 – together with its southern neighbour Kremna – the...

  4. PART I. THE GEOLOGICAL SETTING
    • THE GEOLOGY OF THE AREA AROUND THE ANCIENT CITY OF SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 17-24)
      Patrick DEGRYSE, Philippe MUCHEZ, Manuel SINTUBIN, Anton CLIJSTERS, Willy VIAENE, Micky DEDEREN, Pieter SCHROOTEN and Marc WAELKENS

      The eastern Mediterranean is tectonically a very active and complex region (Figure 1). South of Cyprus and the Aegean Sea, active subduction¹ takes place of the African oceanic lithosphere² underneath the Eurasian continental lithosphere. These arcuate subduction zones form the current plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates. The Aegean Sea area is characterized by a thinned continental lithosphere caused by the gravitational collapse of the Alpine orogen extending from the Balkans into Turkey. This domain currently undergoes active NE-SW oriented extension. For the major part, Turkey acts as one single continental block, the Anatolian plate. This continental block...

    • PETROGRAPHY, MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE ROCKS IN THE AREA OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 25-52)
      Philippe MUCHEZ, Suzy LENS, Patrick DEGRYSE, Kristof CALLEBAUT, Micky DEDEREN, Jan HERTOGEN, Michael JOACHIMSKI, Eddy KEPPENS, Raoul OTTENBURGS, Kristof SCHROYEN and Marc WAELKENS

      Knowledge of the geology is essential to evaluate the potential occurrence of raw materials that could be exploited by man in Antiquity in a given area. It also forms the base for geomorphological and soil-engineering studies. The mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the immediate subsurface constitutes the background for environmental investigations such as the reconstruction of the palaeoclimate and to determine anthropogenic influences based on geochemistry. Since 1989, prof. Willy Viaene and his team carried out a systematic study of the geology in the area of the archaeological site of Sagalassos. The present work is a tribute to prof. Willy...

    • TESTING DIAGNOSTIC GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CRITERIA OF ACTIVE NORMAL FAULTS IN THE BURDUR-ISPARTA REGION (SW TURKEY)
      (pp. 53-74)
      Dominique SIMILOX-TOHON, Max FERNANDEZ-ALONSO, Marc WAELKENS, Philippe MUCHEZ and Manuel SINTUBIN

      The Lake Region in Southwest Turkey, centred on the cities of Burdur and Isparta, is situated in the first-degree seismic hazard zone (Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program– www.seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP/), inferring a relatively high risk for major earthquakes. The wider Burdur-Isparta region has indeed been struck by a number of large damaging earthquakes in the last century. Based on archaeological evidence (Waelkenset al., 2000) at the archaeological site of Sagalassos, situated some 10 km SSW of Isparta and some 20 km ESE of Burdur, it could be inferred that the ancient city has been struck by a number of earthquake(s)...

    • IDENTIFYING ACTIVE NORMAL FAULTS IN THE BURDUR-ISPARTA REGION (SW TURKEY): REMOTE SENSING, SURFACE GEOLOGY AND NEAR-SURFACE GEOPHYSICS
      (pp. 75-130)
      Dominique SIMILOX-TOHON, Max FERNANDEZ-ALONSO, Kris VANNESTE, Marc WAELKENS, Philippe MUCHEZ and Manuel SINTUBIN

      The Lake Region in SW Turkey, centred on the cities of Burdur and Isparta, is situated in the first-degree seismic hazard zone (Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program – www.seismo.ethz. ch/GSHAP/), inferring a relatively high risk for major earthquakes. The wider Burdur-Isparta region has indeed been struck by a number of large damaging earthquakes in the last century. Based on archaeological evidence (Waelkenset al., 2000) at the archaeological site of Sagalassos, situated some 10 km SSW of Isparta and some 20 km ESE of Burdur, it could be inferred that the ancient city has been struck by a number of...

    • AN INTEGRATED NEOTECTONIC STUDY OF THE ÇANAKLI BASIN (SW TURKEY): REMOTE SENSING, SURFACE GEOLOGY AND NEAR-SURFACE GEOPHYSICS
      (pp. 131-154)
      Dominique SIMILOX-TOHON, Max FERNANDEZ-ALONSO, Kris VANNESTE, Marc WAELKENS, Philippe MUCHEZ and Manuel SINTUBIN

      Archaeological evidence (Waelkenset al., 2000) has demonstrated that the ancient city of Sagalassos has been struck by a number of earthquakes during its occupation history. Archaeoseismological evidence (type of damage, extensive and widespread nature of damage) (Sintubinet al., 2003) suggests an intensity of at least VIII (MSK) for the last earthquake(s), causing major damage in the city. An epicentre in the direct proximity, i.e. within a radius of less than 20 km, of the site should be considered (cf. Stiros, 1996). Epicentres of recent and historical earthquakes in the wider area are all located further away from...

  5. PART II. THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL SETTING
    • EXTRACTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTION QUICKBIRD-2 REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY: A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH BASED ON THE TOWN OF SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 157-172)
      Veronique DE LAET, Branco MUŠIČ, Etienne PAULISSEN and Marc WAELKENS

      Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object without touching it (Jensen, 2000). This broad definition encompasses all types of remote sensing, including geophysical prospecting, aerial photography, aerial spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing. In relation to archaeology, remote sensing encompasses methods to discover and map remnants of past civilisations above or below ground level (e.g. crop marks, buried archaeological remains, traces of ancient industrial activity and above ground architectural structures). Remote sensing is very useful in preparing an intensive survey campaign or to direct other field work. In several cases observing archaeological structures from ground level does not...

    • TEPHRA FROM THE MINOAN ERUPTION OF SANTORINI IN THE TERRITORY OF SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 173-188)
      Simon SIX, Patrick DEGRYSE, Etienne PAULISSEN, Wouter HEIJLEN, Marleen VERMOERE and Marc WAELKENS

      The marsh of Gravgaz (N37°34’, E30°24’) is located 20km southeast of Burdur and 15 km southwest of the ancient city of Sagalassos. A few kilometres to the southeast of the marsh, the ruins (with a well-preserved circuit wall) of an unidentified early Iron Age proto-urban site, part of the Hellenistic territory of Sagalassos, occupying the rock promontory of Kepez Kalesi (Vanhaverbeke and Waelkens, 2003). The marsh at an elevation of 1215 m a.s.l. forms the lowest parts of a closed basin of 10.6 km² surrounded by limestone mountains towards the south and the west reaching altitudes of 1550 m a.s.l....

    • LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION IN THE MARSH OF GRAVGAZ: EVIDENCE FOR ABRUPT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES
      (pp. 189-208)
      Simon SIX, Etienne PAULISSEN, Thijs VAN THUYNE, Joachim LAMBRECHTS, Marleen VERMOERE, Véronique DE LAET and Marc WAELKENS

      Detailed sediment analysis is often used for the reconstruction of the palaeoenvironment (Lowe and Walker, 1984). The interpretation and combination of different sediment characteristics (used as proxy-records) can lead towards a regional ecological history (Bell and Walker, 1992). For Southwest Turkey pollen analysis has been performed on lake sediments from Beyşehir, Söğüt and Köycegiz (van Zeistet al.1975), Pinarbaş 1 (Bottema and Woldring 1984), Gölhisar (Eastwoodet al.1999), Gravgaz and Canakli (Vermoere, 2000; 2002a, b), Eski Aclgöl (Robertset al.2001). These publications give an overview on the regional Holocene vegetation evolution and clearly indicate the presence of...

  6. PART III. THE CLIMATIC SETTING
    • DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF HOLOCENE COOL WATER TRAVERTINES IN THE VALLEY OF BAŞKÖY
      (pp. 211-214)
      Patrick DEGRYSE, Philippe MUCHEZ, Willy VIAENE, Yves QUINIF and Marc WAELKENS

      The study of cool water travertines in the village of Başköy, located some 5 km to the west of Sagalassos, forms part of an interdisciplinary research carried out at the territory of the archaeological site of Sagalassos. This site was occupied from prehistoric times until the 7th century A.D. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to reconstruct the physical, biological and socio-economical environment of the ancient city (Waelkenset al., 1999). Within the present paper, a reconstruction of the environment in the valley of Başköy has been made based on travertine deposits.

      The valley of Başköy is surrounded...

    • WEATHERING OF LIMESTONE IN THE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS OF SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 215-228)
      Patrick DEGRYSE, Marc WAELKENS, Peter VANDEVELDE, Philippe MUCHEZ and Willy VIAENE

      The historical buildings of the ancient city of Sagalassos are mainly constructed with local limestone that has been, more or less, weathered in the course of time. The topic of this paper handles the dependency of this weathering on burial conditions, the nature of the limestone, atmospheric circumstances and biological factors. Only limestone building stones are regarded in this study. To investigate the above mentioned relationships, it is necessary to obtain insight into the different weathering mechanisms, the nature of the surface and the weathering layers of limestone and the stability of the different types of limestone under different conditions....

  7. PART IV. EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL RESOURCES AND THE IMPORT OF SUBSISTENCE GOODS
    • CLAYS FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF TABLE AND COMMON WARES, AMPHORAE AND ARCHITECTURAL CERAMICS AT SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 231-254)
      Patrick DEGRYSE and Jeroen POBLOME

      An exploration of the eastern part of Sagalassos in 1987, revealed the artisanal quarter of the town (Mitchell and Waelkens, 1988). The so-called potters’ quarter (Figure 1), located between the theatre in the west and a Hellenistic tower in the east, comprises an area of several hectares, still littered with ceramic waste. It forms one of the few located artisanal quarters in the Roman East still accessible for modern research.

      One concentration of dumped material was studied on the surface in 1988 (Mitchellet al., 1989). That season, the first samples were collected for preliminary archaeometrical analyses. A small-scale rescue...

    • PROVENANCING THE SLIP OF SAGALASSOS RED SLIP WARE
      (pp. 255-260)
      Patrick DEGRYSE, Jeroen POBLOME, Willy VIAENE, Harry KUCHA, Raoul OTTENBURGS, Marc WAELKENS and Jean NAUD

      One of the aims of the new excavation programme in the potters’ quarter, which started in 1997, was the integration of archaeometrical knowledge in order to study every single aspect of the pottery manufacturing process of Sagalassos in detail. As a result of this field work, the source of the clays used for the slip of the local tableware or Sagalassos red slip ware (SRSW) was identified. The slip layer was already characterised by Viaeneet al. (1993). In this study, the slip layer of 18 samples of SRSW was petrographically and geochemically investigated. The composition of the slip was...

    • THE SAGALASSOS QUARRY LANDSCAPE: BRINGING QUARRIES IN CONTEXT
      (pp. 261-290)
      Patrick DEGRYSE, Tom HELDAL, Elizabeth BLOXAM, Per STOREMYR, Marc WAELKENS and Philippe MUCHEZ

      Ancient south-western Turkey has always been an area of magnificent white limestone, which was not only extensively used in the local architecture, but was also exported to nearby Pamphylia (Ward-Perkins, 1980; Greenhalgh, 1987; Waelkenset al., 2002). An honorific inscription mentioning the ‘local marble of Sagalassos’ shows how closely the polished limestone of the area resembles marble (Waelkenset al., 1997a; Greenhalgh, 1987): “. . .Concerning this monument, if it wrongly impresses to be carved in Phrygian stone, it misleads you. The stone originates locally”. In this context, ‘Phrygian stone’ can only mean marble from ancient Dokimeion (near modern...

    • IDENTIFYING REMAINS OF ANCIENT FOOD IN THE CERAMICS OF SAGALASSOS: DEVELOPING A METHOD
      (pp. 291-298)
      Katrien KIMPE, Pierre JACOBS and Marc WAELKENS

      Ancient remains of food are an important source of information to help us understand ancient social and economical systems. Traditional techniques to identify food remains use the morphology of preserved seeds, fruits or roots in the case of plants or preserved bones in the case of animals. The former techniques provide information on the earlier environment, but are inefficient when organic remains are poorly preserved (Jones, 1999). The use of chemical criteria to identify the organic remains can solve these problems. Hereby amorphous residues are identified using specialized analytical techniques. This opens interesting prospects for the research of the encrusted...

    • THE 1997-1999 SURVEYS OF THE ANATOLIAN FISH FAUNA AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO THE INTERPRETATION OF TRADE AT SAGALASSOS
      (pp. 299-324)
      Wim VAN NEER, Ruud WILDEKAMP, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK and Mustafa ÜNLÜSAYIN

      The species identi fied from the fish bones of the Roman and Early Byzantine contexts at Sagalassos show that they came from various regions. Several marine species were identified – of which three occur exclusively in the Mediterranean – as well as Nilotic species such as the Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a bagrid cat fish (Bagrus sp.), tilapia and a clariid cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) (Van Neeret al., 1997, 2000). The latter two taxa also occur in the Levant, but forClariasit could be demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA-analysis that they originated from Egypt (Arndtet al. , 2003)....

  8. LIST OF AUTHORS
    (pp. 325-328)