Business Planning for Digital Libraries

Business Planning for Digital Libraries: International Approaches

Mel Collier (ed.)
Copyright Date: 2010
Published by: Leuven University Press
Pages: 250
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qdz2g
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Business Planning for Digital Libraries
    Book Description:

    This book brings together international experience of business planning for digital libraries: the business case, the planning processes involved, the costs and benefi ts, practice and standards, and comparison with the traditional library where appropriate. Although there is a vast literature already on other aspects of digital libraries, business planning is a subject that until now has not been systematically integrated in a book. Digital libraries are being created not only by traditional libraries, but by museums, archives, media organizations, and indeed any organization concerned with managing scientific and cultural information. Business planning for digital libraries is the process by which the business aims, products and services of the eventual system are identified, together with how the digital library service will contribute to the overall business and mission of the host organization. These provide the context and rationale, which is then combined with normal business plan elements such as technical solutions, investment, income and expenditure, projected benefi ts or returns, marketing, risk analysis, management, and governance. Business Planning for Digital Libraries is designed for practitioners in the cultural and scientifi c sectors, for students in information sciences and cultural management, and in particular for people engaged in managing digital libraries and repositories, in electronic publishing and e-learning, and in teaching and studying in these fi elds.

    eISBN: 978-94-6166-001-5
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-6)
  3. About the authors
    (pp. 7-10)
  4. Framework chapters
    • 1 BUSINESS PLANNING FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES
      (pp. 13-22)
      Mel Collier

      It has become almost conventional to trace the history of the digital library back to Vannevar Bush, or even to notables in the origins of computing such as Charles Babbage or Ada Lovelace. That is not our intention, nor indeed is it our intention to record the history of digital libraries in any detail, but it is appropriate to explain why we present this book on business planning for digital libraries and why at this time. Librarians of a certain age, like the present editor, now nearing the end of their careers, and some already retired, have spent their entire...

    • 2 BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION IN DIGITAL LIBRARIES: THE CULTURAL HERITAGE SECTOR
      (pp. 23-32)
      Harry Verwayen

      This chapter focuses on the challenges and opportunities faced when designing new business models for a digital library. Our approach will be first to introduce the reader to the particular characteristics of the cultural heritage sector and the theoretical framework of business model innovation which has been applied to Europeana, the European portal to digital cultural heritage objects, as an illustration of the issues. In order to do so we will introduce the reader to the background to the Europeana project. This will clarify some of the challenges faced when designing a fitting business model for a digital library of...

    • 3 DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      (pp. 33-44)
      Derek Law

      Higher Education libraries tend rather thoughtlessly to be considered a necessary, if expensive, part of a university which requires little justification. By extension the same approach often characterizes digital libraries. And yet without a clear understanding of the purpose of such libraries, expensive white elephants can all too easily be built. Visions and missions for digital libraries are quite rare. Partly because, in the absence of any common view of the nature of the digital library in Higher Education, it is then important to clarify why a digital library is being created. A surprisingly large number of digital libraries appear...

    • 4 DIGITAL LIBRARIES FOR THE ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
      (pp. 45-56)
      Ian Anderson

      Over the last fifteen years digital libraries have rapidly evolved from small-scale, independent, experimental projects to large-scale programmes which are increasingly integrated into the activities of the ‘bricks and mortar’ library (Greenstein and Thorin, 2002). In so doing they have moved from seeking to develop their own ‘killer applications’ to modular systems increasingly utilising international standards and being offered as customisable open source infrastructures. Moreover, recent years have seen a concerted research effort to develop reference models for digital libraries and produce models, risk assessments and audit tools for digital repositories and digital preservation. At the same time e-journals, electronic...

    • 5 THE IMPACT OF THE DIGITAL LIBRARY ON THE PLANNING OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND MEDICAL LIBRARIES
      (pp. 57-64)
      Wouter Schallier

      Scientific, technical and medical libraries (STM libraries) are challenged by rapid changes in their technological, scholarly and educational context. STM libraries constantly need to improve and re-invent their services and products in order to address user needs. Regarding access to research literature, the core business of STM libraries today is almost completely concerned with the provision of access to electronic journals and databanks. Unless they have a specific archival or heritage function specialist STM libraries may not have a general cultural role, which may call into question the need for a physical library at all. It is clear that research...

  5. Practice chapters
    • 6 E-JOURNALS IN BUSINESS PLANNING FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES
      (pp. 67-78)
      Mel Collier and Hilde Van Kiel

      In no other aspect of the digital library has the development been so rapid and the dominance so definitively established as in e-journals. In 1995 e-journals still existed only in embryonic and experimental form, whereas now, only fifteen years later, e-journals are the dominant method of publishing in the natural and the exact sciences and the preferred way of publishing research results. It is estimated that there are now (2008-9) some 59,549 e-journals in existence and any large broadly based university library is likely to have subscriptions to a substantial proportion of the available total, normally through the so-called “big...

    • 7 E-BOOKS: BUSINESS PLANNING FOR THE DIGITAL LIBRARY
      (pp. 79-92)
      Hazel Woodward

      E-books as a significant component of the digital library have been around for about a decade but, apart from a visionary description of the ‘Memex’ – a conceptual device used to store, retrieve and display books - made by Vannevar Bush in 1945 (Bush, 1945), the first real attempt to make books available online was in 1971 when Michael Hart keyed in the words of the Declaration of Independence, thus starting Project Gutenberg (Project Gutenberg). Over 20,000 public domain books are now accessible from this freely available service.

      By the late 1990s a number of publishers and vendors were beginning to...

    • 8 BUSINESS PLANNING FOR E-ARCHIVES
      (pp. 93-100)
      Dirk Kinnaes, Marc Nelissen, Luc Schokkaert and Mel Collier

      Although it is not uncommon for archives departments to be housed in libraries, archivists are keen to point out that the professional processes associated with archive management are different from those of library management. Archivists have a strict appraisal process for deciding what needs to be preserved and what not, and when an item is selected for retention a decision is being made about the period for which it will be retained, if not in perpetuity. The criteria for appraisal are not absolute: in the administrative context documents may be retained because they are statutorily required or they contain vital...

    • 9 ISSUES IN BUSINESS PLANNING FOR ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS OF WEB MATERIALS
      (pp. 101-112)
      Paul Koerbin

      The World Wide Web (the ‘web’) is such a pervasive part of our working and personal lives that it presents unprecedented challenges for libraries to collect and manage for preservation. We are more involved with the Web every day in a way in which we have not been with other information materials; it is at once seemingly omnipresent and elusive. Confronted with the idea of web archiving an obvious first question to ask is ‘how do we do it?’. However, while the ‘how’ is certainly a challenge it cannot be usefully addressed without first confronting what are the rather more...

    • 10 ORGANIZING DIGITAL PRESERVATION
      (pp. 113-122)
      Barbara Sierman

      The National Library of the Netherlands (KB) holds a small manuscript with the intriguing title ‘How to preserve books for eternity’, written centuries ago, more precisely in 1527 (Porck 2007). The booklet is bound as an introduction together with a larger manuscript. Books were of course valuable treasures in those days, and monasteries appointed a person with the special task of taking care of the books. In eight rules the requirements for taking care of the books is described. As the manuscript has survived through the centuries, it seems that these eight rules worked well in this case! How we...

    • 11 BUSINESS PLANNING FOR DIGITAL REPOSITORIES
      (pp. 123-136)
      Alma Swan

      Digital repositories are coming of age. Globally, on average, there has been a repository built every day for the past three years. There are currently (early 2009) around 1300 worldwide. It will be a rare research-based institution which does not have its own repository within a few years. Why the rush? Because the advantages to an institution of having a repository are so great and the payoff so important. Repositories are a strategic weapon in an institution’s armoury, providing the means for developing new institutional processes, enhancing existing ones and promoting the institution to the world.

      There is a higher-level...

    • 12 PROBLEMS OF MULTI-LINGUALITY
      (pp. 137-146)
      Genevieve Clavel-Merrin

      Libraries, especially those at the academic or national level, have traditionally held collections representing many languages and scripts. In most cases, however, access to this (mainly) printed material has been at the metadata level (bibliographic records) through single language indexes (subject or author, controlled vocabulary) which have enabled material published in different languages to be brought together. These vocabularies are naturally different from country to country, but even within one language zone vary according to library type or specialty: for example, while LCSH (Library of Congress Subject Headings) and MESH (Medical Subject Headings) have some terminology in common, they are...

    • 13 BUSINESS MODELS FOR OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE DIGITAL LIBRARY
      (pp. 147-156)
      David C. Prosser

      The Internet has radically changed the way in which researchers and students gain access to scholarly research articles. The vast majority of core research journals are available online (over 90% in science, technical, and medical subjects) and readers have become used to 24/7 desk-top access to articles of interest. While access has changed beyond recognition, other aspects of the scholarly communication process have been less impacted on. For example, with the exception of a few experiments, peer review has remained fundamentally unchanged for over 50 years. Between these two extremes lie business models for electronic publishing – a transition is currently...

    • 14 DIGITAL LIBRARY METADATA
      (pp. 157-164)
      Stefan Gradmann

      The simplest and broadest definition of metadata states that they are “data about data”. In this sense, metadata can refer to almost anything in the world provided the referenced item can be conceived as ‘data’.

      A more specific and helpful definition focusing on Digital Libraries is that metadata are structured sets of statements on digital information objects which enable users to identify, retrieve, manage and use such information objects.

      The statements made in metadata canpertain to different characteristicsof the information objects held in Digital Libraries (they may for instance refer to semantic, technical or administrative aspects) and may...

  6. Case studies
    • 15 FinELib: AN IMPORTANT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR RESEARCH
      (pp. 167-176)
      Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen and Paula Mikkonen

      In 1997, the Ministry of Education launched FinELib, the National Electronic Library, in accordance with the Government’s Information Society Programme. The purpose of its activities during its first years of operation was to support higher education, research and learning in Finland. The basic goals of FinELib were to increase the amount of electronic information available to users, improve information retrieval from the Internet and develop a graphical user interface providing access to heterogeneous information resources available to users from various sources.

      The main goals have been stated in the vision of the Consortium. The FinELib Consortium is a partner in...

    • 16 THE DIGITAL LIBRARY OF CATALONIA
      (pp. 177-184)
      Lluís Anglada, Ángel Borrego and Núria Comellas

      The Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUCwas formally set up in 1996 with the aim of creating and maintaining the collective catalogue of the universities of Catalonia (CCUC) (Anglada 1999) and soon extended its activities to related fields, such as setting up interlibrary loan in 1997, and the creation of a database of journals’ tables of contents in 1998. Its first experience of joint purchasing was not of electronic information, but of barcodes for automating library loans. After that, the Consortium drew up a catalogue of the databases subscribed to by the member libraries of the CBUC in order...

    • 17 DIGITAL LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY SECTOR IN DENMARK
      (pp. 185-194)
      Rolf Hapel

      The lack of a precise definition of digital libraries has been a constant factor for practitioners and researchers in the information field in Denmark. A relatively comprehensive effort towards reaching a framework and a definition has been carried out in the European DELOS network of reference, where a reference model identifies the basic concepts and relationships characterizing the field. Basically the model operates with six main parameters: Content, User, Architecture, Functionality, Quality and Policy.¹ In this chapter, these basic elements will be interpreted in the perspective of the broader political and cultural rationality of the existence of public libraries. An...

    • 18 DIGITAL LIBRARIES FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE: A PERSPECTIVE FROM NEW ZEALAND
      (pp. 195-206)
      Chern Li Liewa

      Modern information and communication technologies (ICT) have brought about changes and developments in many ways. One of these is that time and space no longer hinder the distribution of and access to information. For the cultural heritage sector, these developments have opened up new opportunities. There is now increased ability to enhance accessibility and transparency to cultural heritage, to attract audiences from around the world to collections of unique and exciting heritage contents which are important assets of various societies. An increasing amount of such content is now being made available in digital form and via the Internet. Using ICT,...

    • 19 APEnet: A MODEL FOR INTERNET BASED ARCHIVAL DISCOVERY ENVIRONMENTS
      (pp. 207-218)
      Angelika Menne-Haritz

      In January 2009 the APEnet project, funded by the European Commission, started. Its aim is to create a place on the Internet which provides joint access to archival information from European countries to support research across the holdings of all archival institutions in Europe which want to be accessible there. Borders between European countries have often changed during history, states have merged and separated, laying the ground for differences in their development as well as complicating the relationships between them, be they peaceful or hostile. European countries have their common history, and their differences just make their histories even more...

    • 20 THE CALIFORNIA DIGITAL LIBRARY
      (pp. 219-228)
      Gary S. Lawrence

      The California Digital Library (CDL) was conceived as a strategic component of the tencampus University of California system and its libraries. The CDL is therefore inextricably linked with the University and its ten campus libraries and their governance, budgeting and operations. Rather than operating as a self-contained digital library, the CDL serves the UC system as an essential link between the print and digital worlds – developing and providing access to digital collections and services for the UC system, facilitating systemwide access to the rich print holdings of the campus libraries, and helping to explore the potential synergies between the print...

    • 21 THE OXFORD DIGITAL LIBRARY
      (pp. 229-240)
      Michael Popham

      In 1999, thanks to generous funding from the Andrew W Mellon Foundation, a ninemonth scoping study recommended the formal establishment of a digital library service at the University of Oxford. Subsequent discussions focused on the potential allocation of resources between the functions which would be required to create new digital collections, and those to develop and maintain new services to readers. The former were seen as largely technical issues (and thus the preserve of IT specialists); the latter as comparable with more traditional library activities which would naturally fall within the domain of reader services. In practice, the boundaries between...