Canadian-American Summit Diplomacy, 1923-1973

Canadian-American Summit Diplomacy, 1923-1973: Selected Speeches and Documents

edited and with an introduction by Roger Frank Swanson
Copyright Date: 1975
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  • Book Info
    Canadian-American Summit Diplomacy, 1923-1973
    Book Description:

    This volume identifies and documents the summit meetings between Canadian Prime Ministers and US Presidents from 1923 to 1973. Cloaked in a rhetoric all their own, these meetings have become an integral part of the symbolic and decisional process between Canada and the United States. The editor has selected documents from these meetings that recreate not only the issues of concern to the two nations, but the atmosphere in which the meetings took place.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9125-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xiv)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xvii-xx)
    R. F. S.
  5. Abbreviations for Main Sources
    (pp. xxi-xxi)
  6. List of Tables
    (pp. xxii-xxii)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-22)

    Canadian-American summitry is less a continuum than a kaleidoscope. Indeed, it might be considered, to quote George Bain, “a diplomatic adaptation of the old New England custom of bundling” which he defined as “an exercise in familiarization at close quarters with consequences hard to predict.”¹ Notwithstanding the substantive and rhetorical haze surrounding these meetings from King and Coolidge to Trudeau and Nixon, they constitute an important dimension of the Canada-United States relationship. Cloaked in a rhetoric all their own, these summit meetings have performed several useful functions, in varying degrees substantive. The overall utility of Canadian-American summitry lies more in...

  8. A. President Calvin Coolidge and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., November 22-24, 1927
    (pp. 23-26)

    … At 5 we called at White House. Was rec’d by an A.D.C. (?) in full uniform & Mr. Castle, 1st Secretary, then taken to an audience with the Presdt., was introduced as P.M. of Canada accompanied by Can. Minister. Mr. Coolidge stood motionless in black morning coat. Asked when I arrived & left, if snow in Ottawa. Spoke of troops & their visit to White House very cordially & of cross at Arlington. Asked how long I was staying. When I sd it depended on Mr. Massey’s keeping me, he sd to come & stay at White House if Massey did not want to...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 27-29)

      Prime Minister R.B. Bennett assumed office in August of 1930 and served until October, 1935. During this time he had two meetings, both in Washington, with U.S. Presidents, Herbert C. Hoover in 1931 and Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. Mr. Hoover was President of the United States from March, 1929 to March, 1933, and this is the only known meeting he had with a Canadian Prime Minister. Roosevelt was President from March, 1933 to April, 1945, and while he was to have a total of twenty meetings with Canadian Prime Ministers—all but the one covered in this chapter with...

    • A. President Herbert C. Hoover and Prime Minister R.B. Bennett, Washington, D.C., January 30-February 1, 1931
      (pp. 29-29)

      I have been very glad to welcome today the Canadian Premier upon his informal visit to Washington. We have no formal matters under discussion. We are mutually interested in the common welfare of our peoples. Informal conversations on problems of the future always lead to better understanding. I consider it a great compliment that Mr. Bennet has found it possible to come to Washington.

      My dear Mr. Secretary:

      You will recollect that when Premier Bennett was here we had a somewhat indefinite discussion along the line that a preliminary commission should be set up to determine the principles on which...

    • B. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister R.B. Bennett, Washington, D.C., April 24-29, 1933
      (pp. 30-36)

      The President of the United States has done a great and helpful thing in asking the representatives of the nations to meet him in Washington. I hope and believe that from the discussions there will emerge a united plan of action. The International Monetary and Economic Conference should in consequence be enabled to reach agreements which will ensure the enjoyment by mankind of prosperity and happiness. Individual nations and groups of nations have already achieved some progress in defeating the depression. But we have reached a point where it is certain that nothing but united action can avert world disaster....

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 37-45)

      During his first term of office Prime Minister King had a November, 1927 meeting with President Calvin Coolidge, as documented in Section b of the Introduction. King again held office from October 1935 to November 1948, during which time he had a total of 27 meetings with United States Presidents. Nineteen of these meetings were with President Roosevelt, who held office from March 1933 to April 1945. Eight of the meetings, which are discussed in the next chapter, were with Harry S. Truman who as Vice President, became President on Roosevelt’s death. Of the nineteen King-Roosevelt meetings, ten are documented...

    • A. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., November 7-10, 1935 and November 15, 1935 (two meetings)
      (pp. 46-48)

      The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Canada have considered the question of increased trade which has been discussed for some time by representatives of the two nations. There is complete agreement on the objective of a greatly increased flow of trade for the benefit of both countries and substantial progress has been made toward this end. It is recognized that such an increase would be beneficially felt in all activities, because trade is but another word for increased employment, transportation and consumption.

      I am glad, on this Armistice Day, to be able to inform you...

    • B. Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Quebec City, P.Q., July 31, 1936
      (pp. 48-52)

      … On either side of that line which spreads its way across rivers and lakes, valleys and hills, mountains and plains, there is not to be and there has not been for over a century, save as a relic of the past, a fort or a fortification worthy of the name.

      The place of armaments on land and water has been taken by international parks and bridges, expressive not of fear, suspicion or hate, but of international peace, friendship and good-will.

      This is the joint achievement, not of two races, but of two peoples, the men and women of the...

    • C. Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Kingston, Ontario and Thousand Islands Bridge, Clayton, New York and Ivy Lea, Ontario, August 18, 1938
      (pp. 52-62)

      To the pleasure of being once more on Canadian soil where I have passed so many happy hours of my life, there is added today a very warm sense of gratitude for being admitted to the fellowship of this ancient and famous University. I am glad to join the brotherhood which Queen’s has contributed and is contributing not only to the spiritual leadership for which the college was established, but also to the social and public leadership in the civilized life of Canada.

      An American President is precluded by our Constitution from accepting any title from a foreign Prince, potentate...

    • D. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., November 17-19, 1938
      (pp. 62-63)

      This is the third anniversary of the signing of the first great trade treaty between this country and Canada. We believed at that time it would be a success and result in increased trade both ways. At the same time we hoped to extend the principle to other parts of the empire and Great Britain itself. I am happy to find the representative of the King himself and Mr. Mackenzie King here.

      A large number of people have been working on this trade treaty. The negotiations have been going on for many, many months. They have been carried on not...

    • E. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Warm Springs, Georgia, and Washington, D.C., April 23-24, and 29, 1940
      (pp. 64-67)

      Most of their talk was about the war and there was “of course no question about his sympathies. He [Roosevelt] and everyone around him are all strongly for the Allies…. He was anxious to avoid recognizing a state of war between Germany and Norway [the German invasion of Norway and Denmark had begun on April 9] so that he would not have to issue a proclamation of neutrality but would continue to supply Norway with aeroplanes, ammunition, etc.” When word came during the morning that both Norway and Denmark were represented at the Supreme Allied Council, and were thus probably...

    • F. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King, Ogdensburg, New York, August 17-18, 1940
      (pp. 67-77)

      … During their talk after dinner. Roosevelt and Mackenzie King quickly agreed in principle on the establishment of a joint board composed of an equal number of representatives of both countries to study their common problems of defence and to make recommendations to the two Governments. After that, the President read over all the messages that Churchill had sent him regarding the destroyers and Atlantic bases. Mackenzie King had received copies of most of them from Churchill. In one message, Churchill had used the expression that the destroyers would be as precious to the British as rubies. When he came...

    • G. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., April 16-17, 1941, and Hyde Park, New York, April 20, 1941
      (pp. 77-84)

      … The three of them later drove to the house of one of the President’s relatives for tea. “On the way,” Mackenzie King wrote, “we talked a little about some of the defence measures, but more particularly of the talk I had had with Mr. Morgenthau. The President told me that Morgenthau had seen him, after talking with me, and had explained the situation to him. He thought perhaps it might be going a little too far to have something manufactured in Canada for the U.S. to Lease-Lend to England.”

      Hopkins told Mackenzie King “he had had a very satisfactory...

    • H. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., May 18-21, 1943, also with Prime Minister Winston Churchill
      (pp. 84-87)

      Mackenzie King spent a good deal of time with both Churchill and Roosevelt during his stay at the White House. He dined with both of them and with several other guests on the day Churchill spoke to the Congress. There was nothing very notable in the conversation until the other guests left and Mackenzie King was alone with the President. Roosevelt then outlined some of his ideas about peace-making and post-war international organization. Roosevelt felt there would have to be a Supreme Council representing all ‘the United Nations, and he stressed particularly the need of “someone who could fill the...

    • I. Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Quebec City, P.Q., also with Prime Minister Winston Churchill, August 17-24, 1943 (First Quebec Conference), and Ottawa, Ontario, August 25, 1943
      (pp. 88-94)

      The president: (continuing) We have come here to Quebec, and we have appreciated the wonderful hospitality of Mr. King—

      Prime minister churchill: (interjecting) Hear—hear.

      The president: (continuing)—and of the Canadian people, because he speaks for them.

      I don’t think we could find a more delightful spot than here, with its great historic background. I, like Mr. Churchill, wish we had had more time to get about and see things, and do things. I will say that I shall never forget the very excellent eating qualities of Quebec trout. That is something that I shall long remember. All in...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 95-98)

      President Truman assumed office with the April, 1945, death of Franklin Roosevelt, and was reelected to a full term served from January 1949, to January 1953. While serving out Mr. Roosevelt’s term, he met eight times with Prime Minister King of which six are documented. These eight meetings were the last of twenty-eight that Prime Minister King had with Presidents of the United States starting with Calvin Coolidge. President Truman subsequently had two meetings with Prime Minister St. Laurent during the term of office to which he was elected in 1948, as discussed in the next chapter.

      Although not documented,...

    • A. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., September 29-30, 1945
      (pp. 98-101)

      Mackenzie King made a detailed record of his conversations with President Truman in his secret diary. “My decision to see the President before leaving for Europe was the outcome of my feeling that we owed it to the United States as well as to the United Kingdom to let those highest in authority in these two countries know all that we possessed in the way of information regarding R.E. [Russian espionage].

      “There were other reasons which made it obviously desirable in the national interest that I should see the President before going abroad so that the country might know of...

    • B. President Harry S. Truman, Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, and Prime Minister C.R. Attlee, Washington, D.C., November 10-15, 1945
      (pp. 102-106)

      The following morning the British delegation prepared a paper for circulation and consideration. That evening, the Secretary of State, James Byrnes, entertained Attlee and Mackenzie King and their parties to dinner. After the dinner, Pearson, Hume Wrong and Norman Robertson exchanged views with the Under Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, and subsequently prepared a Canadian draft of a joint statement which was submitted to Mackenzie King on Tuesday morning, November 13. Discussions between the President and the two prime ministers were resumed that afternoon. At this meeting, Byrnes produced a draft statement which did not prove to be entirely suitable...

    • C. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., October 27-28, 1946
      (pp. 106-112)

      The Government of the United States is grateful to the Government of Canada for the favorable consideration which the latter has given to proposals relating to joint defense. In no case has any military project which this Government considered urgent been delayed by any lack of cooperation on the part of Canada.

      Because of the extreme importance in an unsettled world of continuing and reinforcing measures of joint defense it is believed that the consideration of these matters, hitherto primarily in military hands, should also now be taken up directly by the governments. In suggesting this course, the Government of...

    • D. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Washington, D.C., April 23, 1947.
      (pp. 112-114)

      “As I entered the President’s Office,” he wrote, “I noticed his Secretary in the outer room beckoned to Mr. Woodward to go in with me. This is something I did not altogether like. Wrong had asked me if he should come along and I had told him I thought I would prefer to see the President by myself. Some of the members of the American Government have a way of having a third person in the room. I do not think that as between the President and the Prime Minister that sort of thing is necessary. However, it made no...

    • E. Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King and President Harry S. Truman, Ottawa, Ontario, June 10-12, 1947
      (pp. 114-123)

      We are indeed greatly honoured in having as our country’s guest today the President of the United States of America. Your visit, Mr. President, is a welcome expression of friendship and good will, both personal and national. On behalf of the members of Canada’s parliament here assembled, and of all whom we represent, I extend to you the warmest of welcomes.

      In paying this neighbourly visit to our capital, we are delighted that you are accompanied by Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman. We are pleased that you have found it possible to make your stay of sufficient length to enable...

    • F. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, Williamsburg, Virginia, April 2, 1948
      (pp. 123-126)

      … “The college and Colonial Williamsburg have designated this day as Canadian-American Day. The citizens of Canada will be quick to recognize the signal honor thus being paid His Majesty’s senior dominion in the present British Commonwealth of Nations. The international aspect of the occasion, and the national character of the welcome, could not find more gracious expression than they have in the presence, at the college this morning, of the President of the United States. I should like to convey to Mr. Truman and to his fellow citizens warmest thanks on behalf of Canada, for today’s expression of friendship...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 127-131)

      Louis St. Laurent became Prime Minister in November of 1948 and served until June of 1957. During this time, he had six meetings with U.S. Presidents—two with Harry S. Truman, and four with Dwight D. Eisenhower. All of these meetings are documented in this chapter. President Truman had assumed office in April of 1945, and served until January of 1953. He had met with Prime Minister King eight times, and was to have a total of ten meetings with Canadian Prime Ministers.

      The first St. Laurent-Truman meeting, held in Washington from February 11-13, 1949 was in President Truman’s words,...

    • A. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent, Washington, D.C., February 11-13, 1949
      (pp. 131-134)

      The president: I have invited the Prime Minister of Canada to visit Washington on February 12. He has accepted the invitation, and it is expected that he will arrive in Washington on the evening of February 11, and will remain probably for 2 days.

      The Prime Minister’s acceptance of the invitation will permit us to renew his acquaintance—I became very well acquainted with him November 15, 1948—after having served first as Minister of Justice and then as Secretary of State for External Affairs since 1941. This will be the Prime Minister’s first trip to the United States since...

    • B. President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent, Washington, D.C., September 27-28, 1951
      (pp. 134-136)

      Q. Are you seeing the Canadian Prime Minister tomorrow, as I understand it?

      The president: Yes. On the St. Lawrence Seaway project …

      Q. Is there any reason why the St. Lawrence and Niagara power projects should be linked together?

      The president: Yes, there is a very good reason—because we want to get them both constructed.

      Q. But the Niagara power is ready to go now—as an independent proposition.

      The president: Yes, but I am not for it. I never have been in favor of taking them apart, for the very simple reason that I don’t want to...

    • C. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent, Washington, D.C., May 7-8, 1953
      (pp. 136-148)

      … I came to Washington at the cordial invitation of the President to discuss some of the many matters of common concern to two neighbouring households whose properties adjoin one another for some five thousand miles; and whose relations differ from those of any two other countries on earth. We are citizens of two neighbouring nations who have never looked on one another as foreigners.

      That does not mean that, in these neighbourly relations between us there have not sometimes been complicated and even vexatious questions to settle; but, most of time, we have settled them like good neighbours who...

    • D. Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent And President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ottawa, Ontario, November 13-15, 1953
      (pp. 148-157)

      Mr. President, members of the Parliament of Canada, we are greatly honoured by the presence here today of the President of the United States of America. I am sure that I speak not only for those who are seated in this chamber but for all of our fellow Canadians, Mr. President, when I say to you how pleased we are that you have been able to pay another visit to our capital city, this time as the first citizen of your great country.

      My words in this chamber do not always meet with unanimous approval, but I know I can...

    • E. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, also with President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines of Mexico, March 26-27, 1956
      (pp. 158-161)

      … Q. William H. Lawrence, New York Times: Mr. President, could you tell us, sir, any of the specific purposes for which you are meeting with the Mexican President and the Canadian Premier at White Sulphur?

      The president: Well, one of the things is in recognition of the fact that the North American Continent is a continent that is bound together by geography; you can’t get away from it and therefore we have common problems.

      So far as we have common aspirations, common policies, international policies in the world, we have particular relationships with our two big neighbors. So we...

    • F. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Louis S. St. Laurent, Augusta, Georgia, December 11, 1956
      (pp. 161-164)

      … I was very happy when, toward the end of my short holiday in Florida. I received a telephone call from the White House that the president would be glad if I would drop off at Augusta, Georgia, on my way back, have lunch with him and have a game of golf. Well I found in fact, you know, that a game of golf with one of those electric go-carts was about the best way to have an international conference because you are getting off the go-cart quite frequently for only a couple of minutes but for time enough to...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 165-170)

      Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker assumed office in June, 1957, and served until April, 1963. During his tenure, he had ten meetings with U.S. Presidents—seven with Dwight D. Eisenhower and three with John F. Kennedy. Six of these ten meetings (three with Eisenhower and three with Kennedy) are documented. President Eisenhower took office in January of 1953 and served until January of 1961. He had met four times with Prime Minister St. Laurent, and was to have a total of eleven meetings with Canadian Prime Ministers.

      After her visit to Canada, Queen Elizabeth ii visited the United States in...

    • A. Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ottawa, Ontario, July 8-11, 1958
      (pp. 170-186)

      Q. Can you tell us what you hope to accomplish by your visit to Canada next week?

      The president: Well, I can’t describe in detail everything that I expect to do, but I believe this:

      First of all, with our two close neighbors, our relations should be just as close as we can possibly make them. I believe those relations cannot be close unless we have a chance to talk together about our common problems. There are problems involving the water of northwest United States and southwest Canada. There is the oil problem. There is lead and zinc. There is...

    • B. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker, Washington, D.C., June 3-4, 1960
      (pp. 186-192)

      The Prime Minister of Canada, the Right Honorable John G. Diefenbaker, and the President of the United States have consulted on a wide range of subjects of both an international and bilateral nature. The Canadian Ambassador at Washington and the Secretary to the Canadian Cabinet assisted in the discussions, together with the United States Secretary of State and the United States Ambassador at Ottawa.

      The Prime Minister and the President were in agreement on measures which should be taken to maintain the security of the free world. They reaffirmed their determination to continue to work for peace with justice. Particular...

    • C. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker, Washington, D.C., January 17, 1961
      (pp. 192-194)

      The president: The signing of this treaty marks the culmination of a long effort—indeed 16 years long—between Canada and the United States to reach a common ground of agreement on the development of the Upper Columbia.

      I personally believe that the work which will now go ahead, when these treaties are properly approved, will be one of the great developments for the benefit of both our countries.

      Moreover, in more intangible benefits, there is a tremendously important advance. That comes about because these two nations living so close together have to watch each other, probably, at times. Nevertheless,...

    • D. President John F. Kennedy and Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker, Washington, D.C., February 20, 1961
      (pp. 194-197)

      President Kennedy and Prime Minister Diefenbaker met today in Washington to discuss informally a wide range of international problems as well as bilateral questions of interest to the two countries. The Secretary of State, Mr. Dean Rusk, and the United States Ambassador-designate to Canada, Mr. Livingston Merchant, assisted in these discussions together with the Secretary of State for External Affairs, Mr. Howard Green, and the Canadian Ambassador to the United States, Mr. Arnold Heeney.

      The President and the Prime Minister welcomed this early opportunity for a friendly exchange of views between neighbors, in a tradition consistent with the long and...

    • E. Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker and President John F. Kennedy, Ottawa, Ontario, May 16-18, 1961
      (pp. 198-211)

      Today it is my honour to welcome here, on behalf of the Canadian parliament and people, one who comes to us not only as a new but as a renowned leader of the free world, and also as a good neighbour and friend.

      Mr. President, the extraordinary welcome from the people which you have received is a demonstration of their admiration and affection not only for your country but for you and Mrs. Kennedy. As you passed through the streets yesterday and today, Mr. President, you must have been conscious of a divided attention, and all who had eyes to...

    • F. President John F. Kennedy and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Nassau, Bahamas, December 18-21, also with Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker, December 21-22, 1962
      (pp. 211-216)

      … I was in Nassau. I formed certain ideas. I read the communique that was issued there and I came to certain conclusions based on that communique. Those conclusions are as follows, and these are the views expressed also by the United States Under-Secretary of State, George W. Ball: that nuclear war is indivisible; that there should be no further development of new nuclear power anywhere in the world; that nuclear weapons as a universal deterrent are a dangerous solution. Today an attempt is being made by the United States to have the nato nations increase their conventional arms. The...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 217-222)

      Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson took office in April, 1963, and served until April, 1968. During his tenure, Mr. Pearson met ten times with U.S. Presidents—once with John F. Kennedy before his November, 1963, assassination, and nine times with Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. Eight of these nine meetings (the one with Kennedy and seven with Johnson) are documented.

      President Kennedy had met three times with Prime Minister Diefenbaker, and held one meeting with Mr. Pearson at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, from May 10-11, 1963, in which an attempt was made to stabilize the Canadian-United States relationship. (See Section a.)...

    • A. President John F. Kennedy and Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, Hyannis, Massachusetts, May 10-11, 1963
      (pp. 222-227)

      The president: It is a great pleasure to welcome the Prime Minister of Canada to the United States and also to my native State of Massachusetts.

      We share a neighbor’s pride in the distinguished career which the Prime Minister has carved out in the service of his country and in the cause of peace, and we welcome him as an old friend of the United States. As a former Ambassador to this country in the difficult days of the Second War, as a distinguished international leader in the cause of amity between nations, as President of the General Assembly, and,...

    • B. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, Washington, D.C., January 21-22, 1964
      (pp. 227-239)

      President Johnson and Prime Minister Pearson presided today at the White House at the signing of further important agreements between the two governments regarding the cooperative development of the water resources of the Columbia River Basin. Mr. Rusk, Secretary of State, signed for the United States, and Mr. Martin, Secretary of State for External Affairs, signed for Canada.

      The arrangements which are now being made will be of great benefit to both countries, particularly to the province of British Columbia in Canada and to the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon in the United States. Today’s signing took place...

    • C. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, New York City, N. Y., May 28, 1964
      (pp. 239-241)

      I flew up to Ottawa yesterday to talk with Mike Pearson and Martin concerning the Canadian presence in Hanoi….

      They readily agreed that Seaborn should plan to spend much more time in Hanoi than have his predecessors in this assignment. They also accept as part of his mission an effort to establish ready access to and close contact with senior authorities in Hanoi, beginning with Ho Chi Minh….

      Following are some of the matters which we roughed out in Ottawa and which I will have further developed here….

      1. Seaborn should start out by checking as closely as he can what...

    • D. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and President Lyndon B. Johnson, Great Falls, Montana, and Vancouver, British Columbia, September 16, 1964
      (pp. 241-245)

      The president: Welcome to the United States, Mr. Prime Minister. And welcome to Montana whose majesty and western warmth should remind you of your own great country.

      In 1963, Mr. Prime Minister, you said of Canada: “We are so friendly that we feel we can criticize the United States like a Texan does—and in the same idiom.” This Texan hopes that you still feel that freedom, for we welcome the comments and the counsel which spring, as yours do, from friendship and understanding. Although I doubt that even with your grasp of languages you will be able to match...

    • E. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, LBJ Ranch, Johnson City, Texas, January 15-16, 1965
      (pp. 245-250)

      The president: The Prime Minister and I, with Secretary Martin and Secretary Rusk, are about to sign a historic agreement, an agreement for free trade on automotive products between Canada and the United States.

      Two years ago it appeared that our two countries might have grave differences in this great field of trade. We faced a choice between the road of stroke and counterstroke and the road of understanding and cooperation. We have taken the road of understanding.

      This agreement is the result of hard work on both sides all along that road. I am sure that the Prime Minister...

    • F. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, Camp David Presidential Retreat, Catoctin Mountains of Maryland, April 3, 1965
      (pp. 251-258)

      … In this tragic conflict, the U.S. intervened to help South Vietnam defend itself against aggression and at the request of the government of the country that was under attack.

      Its motives were honourable; neither mean nor imperialistic. Its sacrifices have been great and they were not made to advance any selfish American interest. U.S. civilians doing peaceful work have been wantonly murdered in this conflict….

      The universal concern which is being expressed about the tragedy of Vietnam is a reflection both of this fearful possibility and of that sense of world community to which I have referred. All nations...

    • G. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and President Lyndon B. Johnson, Campobello Island, New Brunswick, August 21, 1966
      (pp. 258-262)

      The prime minister: Mr. President, when we signed the agreement in the White House on behalf of our two governments establishing the Roosevelt-Campobello International Park, we were providing for the kind of memorial to Franklin Delano Roosevelt he would have best appreciated.

      I had not seen Campobello when the idea was first broached. I do not think President Johnson had either. But we both recognized, as President Kennedy had before us and as the Hammer family had done, when they so generously offered the property to the Canadian and United States Governments, what a happy and significant symbol it would...

    • H. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and President Lyndon B. Johnson, Harrington Lake, P. Q., May 25, 1967
      (pp. 263-266)

      It is always a great pleasure for me to visit Canada. Your magnificent expo ‘67—and knowledge that this is your centennial anniversary—serves to heighten my interest.

      My first trip outside of the United States after I became President was to visit Canada. That was to Vancouver, where we met with Prime Minister Pearson to proclaim the Columbia River Treaty.

      We came to conserve the water resources of our great continent—and so naturally that day it was pouring down rain.

      It rained so hard, in fact, that I never delivered the speech that I had prepared for that...

    • Editorial Note
      (pp. 267-270)

      Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau assumed office in April of 1968, while Richard Nixon became President in January of 1969. Although Lyndon B. Johnson was President during the first nine months of the Trudeau incumbency, the two leaders did not meet. Trudeau and Nixon have met a total of five times to 1974, of which three are documented in this chapter.

      The first Trudeau-Nixon meeting occurred in Washington from March 24–25, 1969. (See Section a.) Constituting the first state visit of a foreign leader during the Nixon Administration, the goal of the meeting was, to quote the Trudeau-Nixon Joint...

    • A. President Richard M. Nixon and Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau, Washington, D.C., March 24-25, 1969
      (pp. 271-284)

      The president: As most of you are aware, the Prime Minister is the first official visitor since the new Administration assumed office.

      In welcoming him personally today and also in welcoming him representing his country, I do so saying first that it is altogether appropriate that he should be the first official visitor to this country. Because, as we look at the relations between your country and my country, Mr. Prime Minister, we recognize many factors that are often spoken of in the classroom and in the press and on television.

      We share the longest common border of all nations....

    • B. President Richard M. Nixon and Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau, Washington, D.C., December 6-7, 1971
      (pp. 284-295)

      Hon robert l. stanfield (Leader of the Opposition): Mr. Speaker, I wish to direct a question to the Prime Minister who I was interested and pleased to see has requested a meeting with the President of the United States. In view of the fact the Prime Minister has rejected suggestions over the past three months that it would be a good idea for him to meet with the President of the United States, can he tell the House what specific factors now make it desirable for him to have a meeting with the President?

      Right hon. p. e. trudeau (Prime...

    • C. Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau and President Richard M. Nixon, Ottawa, Ontario, April 13-15, 1972
      (pp. 296-310)

      On behalf of the people of Canada, and of their parliamentary representatives gathered in this chamber, I extend to you, Mr. President, and to Mrs. Nixon, a warm welcome to Ottawa.

      You, sir, are the fifth holder of your office to honour a joint session of the Parliament of Canada. Because your colleague President Eisenhower visited this place twice, your address will be the sixth such to be heard here.

      You see before you, Mr. President, Canadians from every corner of this far-flung land we call Canada. They reflect not just the geography of the country but as well the...

  16. Appendix First Visit of a U.S. President to Canada: President Warren G. Harding to Vancouver, British Columbia, July 26, 1923 (Address at Stanley Park)
    (pp. 311-314)