Canada-Australia: Towards a Second Century of Partnership

Kate Burridge
Lois Foster
Gerry Turcotte
Copyright Date: 1997
Pages: 460
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  • Book Info
    Book Description:

    This volume is the result of the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand (ACSANZ) 1995 conference held at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. A special feature of the conference, though not its exclusive focus, was trade relations. But as with all ACSANZ conferences, the papers were wide-ranging and contributors were not limited to a single theme. This publication is a refereed collection from more than sixty papers that were presented and range from discussions of immigration policy in Canada and Australia to architectural practices in British Columbia; from Canadian influences on Australia's economic development to issues of identity politics in each nation's literature. In addition, the collection represents major research in the areas of globalization, migration, pluralism, and ethnic relations, with a strongly, though not exclusively, comparative orientation. This work is a co-publication with the International Council for Canadian Studies.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9141-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. iii-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. General Introduction
    (pp. vii-ix)
    Kate Burridge, Lois Foster and Gerry Turcotte

    The following volume of essays is the result of the ACSANZ 1995 conference held at La Trobe University, in Melbourne, Australia, organised by Dr Lois Foster. A special feature of the conference, though not its exclusive focus, was trade relations, a theme chosen to coincide with the Canadian High Commission’s celebration of a century of formal trade links between Canada and Australia. But as with all. ACSANZ conferences, the papers were wide-ranging and contributors were not limited to a single theme. This publication is a refereed collection from the more than sixty papers that were presented and range from discussions...

  4. Opening Address & Response
    • Canada and Australia: Pacific Partners — Past, Present and Future
      (pp. 1-12)
      L. Michael Berry

      In 1995, we commemorated the One Hundredth Anniversary of “Official” Canada-Australia trade relations. The first of Canada’s trade commissioners, or as they were known in those days, commercial agents, arrived in Sydney, in early 1895 to promote trade between Canada and the Australian colonies. His name was John Larke and his additional tasks were to promote the improvement of shipping services and the development of the Pacific cable, both designed to improve communications between these outposts of the British Empire.

      For historical accuracy I should make clear that trade links between Canada and Australia certainly existed before Mr John Larke...

    • Parallel Paths: Canadian-Australian Relations Since the 1890s
      (pp. 13-38)
      Greg Donaghy

      This paper traces the evolution of Canadian-Australian relations since the early 1890s when the two countries were first drawn together as Imperial Britain reached its apogee. As the imperial association lost its significance with the passage of time, it was replaced by a new set of shared interests. For the past century, the two countries have followed similar paths to political, economic and cultural maturity. Immense, sparsely populated and largely dependent on primary products for their economic strength, the two countries have faced many of the same problems and found in this basic commonality a new source of fellowship.


  5. Globalisation:: Implications for Australia & Canada
    • Introduction: Globalisation — Implications for Australia and Canada
      (pp. 41-44)
      Lois Foster

      The Opening Plenary Session at ACSANZ 1995 on the topic of Globalisation was the only pre-designed section of the Conference Program. The other streams: Economics and Trade, Environment, Health and Law, Social and Historical, and Language and Cultural Studies emerged as papers were accepted and grouped by the organiser.

      The decision to hold the plenary featuring a panel of speakers was taken to achieve a number of purposes. The most important of these were, first, to provide a substantive transition from the contribution made by the High Commissioner’s address on Canadian-Australian trade links to the many facets of partnership between...

    • Globalisation and the Impact of Asian Migration on Australia and Canada
      (pp. 45-76)
      Chiristine Inglis

      A frequent theme in comparisons of Australia and Canada is the important role of immigration in their national development. So significant has been the role of immigration since their earliest origins as white settler colonies that both are often described as a “nation of immigrants”. This appellation highlights the important place which immigration has played historically not only in the growth of their populations, but in economic development and in the way in which their institutions and national identity have been moulded by the experience of immigration. Still, today, immigration remains an important part of national policy and immigrants play...

    • Institutional Restructuring and the Impact of Non-European Immigration on the Urban Areas of the US, Canada and Australia
      (pp. 77-112)
      Jeffrey G. Reitz

      How is the impact of immigrants on a society affected by the structure of that society’s own institutions? How is institutional restructuring altering the impact of immigration? These questions are important to immigrant-receiving societies such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, because in all three countries the processes of global economic change and other forces are affecting both immigration and institutional change. Are institutional changes such as privatisation, freer markets and streamlined social welfare, which have been undertaken in part as national competitiveness strategies, likely to facilitate a positive impact of immigration? Or does such structural change hinder the...

    • Globalisation: Internationalising Education in the 1990s
      (pp. 113-124)
      David Stockley

      This paper discusses certain aspects of the phenomenon of the “internationalisation of education”, focusing on tertiary education and using Australia as a case study, with reference to Canada because of the latter’s recent decision to model much of its overseas student recruitment and generic promotion activities along Australian lines. A brief history of relevant Australian developments concerning the internationalisation of education is followed by Australian and Canadian data and a sketch of recent Canadian actions (particularly Canadian actions centred on the Asian education market). The paper concludes with a summary of current major strategies and issues concerning the internationalisation of...

    • Globalisation and Civil Society: Multiculturalism, Citizenship and Nationalism in Australia and Canada
      (pp. 125-138)
      Malcolm Alexander

      Globalisation involves the world-wide spread of a pervasive consumerist culture carried by an exploding communications technology and driven by the rapid internationalisation of commerce and business. The process forces a change to the horizons of our political identity and our thinking about citizenship, from national to international and global perspectives. But the challenge is deeper than this. Globalisation changes the raw material of cultural formation, creating a new cultural diversity which feeds into the generation of multicultural or world cultures. The globalisation of business and commerce also has a profound effect on the structure of work, work practices and the...

  6. Perspectives on Economics & Trade
    • Introduction: Perspective on Economics and Trade
      (pp. 141-142)
      Lois Foster

      The four papers in the second section emerged from a mix of disciplines including economics, history and social policy analysis. The topics covered by these papers range over time, space and human activity. Dr Clarke’s paper examines Australian and Canadian labour-cum-capital across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, revisiting issues raised by Inglis and Reitz. The analysis provides support for the “close link between immigration and capital flows when countries are seeking capital from the rest of the world”, with, for instance, some evidence that “capital chased labour” to Australia and Canada.

      Contributions to a diversity of aspects of trade relations...

    • Australian and Canadian Labour-Cum-Capital Migrations: Push Factors, Causality and the Role of US Labour Intakes
      (pp. 143-170)
      Harry Clarke

      This paper analyses labour immigration and capital flows to Australia and Canada. Since flows to these countries depend on US market developments the latter’s experience is also discussed. The investigation is historical and covers mainly the period after about 1870.

      The object is twofold. First, to examinelinksbetween differentfactor movements to particular countriesand second, to considerrelations between given types of factor movements to different countries.Does “capital chase labour” internationally and are there relations between given types of factor flow (e.g. labour) to different countries? Given differences between the countries in economic size it is reasonable...

    • Early Canadian Contributions to Australia’s Economic Development
      (pp. 171-188)
      Ian W. Fry

      This paper gives an overview of the activities of a few of the hundreds of Canadians who contributed to the earliest economic development of Australia, up to the formal establishment of Canada’s first trade office in Sydney in 1895. The paper also gives an overview of the Canadian built ships involved, first in the early development of Australian commerce, and then in immigration to Australia. Canadians started arriving in Australia in numbers only after gold was discovered, but there were many Canadians who came to Australia before that time, so that the real beginnings of Australian-Canadian trade took place in...

    • The Wreck of the William Salthouse — the Earliest Attempt to Establish Trade Relations Between Canada and Australia
      (pp. 189-202)
      Mark Staniforth

      Early colonial economies in North America and Australia were commonly based on a combination of the importation of goods and a system of local production which included subsistence agriculture and hunting. Before 1850 the Australian settlements had a very limited and only slowly developing capacity to create or harvest, local supplies of food and alcohol. Furthermore in the nineteenth century the Australian colonies never developed the capacity to produce certain kinds of consumer goods. In the Australian context the period and degree of “dependency” on external sources of supply varied according to well recognised factors like the growth of population...

    • The Price of Competitiveness: The Canadian and Australian Experience of Global Integration and Restructuring
      (pp. 203-224)
      John Wiseman

      The aim of this article is to explore the national social policy impact of global economic restructuring through a comparative discussion of the recent experience of restructuring in Canada and Australia. The key argument is that, despite significant differences, the recent political and economic histories of Canada and Australia have both been dominated by the impact of globalisation. In both countries the central political question has become: how to transform resource dependent, inward looking economies into internationally competitive exporters of high value added goods and services. However the common price of the struggle for competitiveness has been downwards pressure on...

  7. Social, Historical & Other Perspectives
    • Introduction: Social, Historical and Other Perspectives
      (pp. 227-232)
      Kate Burridge

      The selection of papers which are included in this section “Social, Historical and Other Perspectives” come from an extraordinary mix of disciplines and span across a wide range of topics. Nonetheless, when viewed within the broad theme of globalisation, a common thread does emerge to unite them. Recent trends in globalisation indicate two quite distinct effects of the global village — while there is undoubtedly greater unity appearing at the global level, fragmentation and diversity continue to thrive at the local level (cf.Hall, 1991; Gleeson 1995). All papers reflect in some way the different effects of these homogenising/differentiating forces. All...

    • The International Baccalaureate in Canada: 1980–1993
      (pp. 233-246)
      Nigel Bagnall

      The International Baccalaureate (IB) was conceived in the mid 1960s as a necessary and worthwhile development by the International Schools of the predominantly European nations. These schools were struggling to provide an adequate entrance qualification for the students that passed through their education system and hoped to gain access to universities either back in their native country or in the United States or England where many of these internationally mobile students completed their tertiary studies. The resultant qualification that became known as the International Baccalaureate has served this world wide system of international schools in a highly satisfactory manner. There...

    • “Separate and Peculiar” — The Survival of Pennsylvania “Dutch” in Ontario
      (pp. 247-266)
      Kate Burridge

      At the beginning of the nineteenth century immigrants of German and Swiss origin flooded into Ontario from Pennsylvania bringing with them their particular dialect of German,Pennsylfaani Deitschor Pennsylvania German. Waterloo County, in south western Ontario (approximately eighty kilometres from Toronto) represents today the largest settlement of Pennsylvania Germans in Ontario and this paper will concentrate on the language spoken in the predominantly Mennonite communities in and around the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo. It will not include the other, although admittedly mutually intelligible, dialect group; namely, the Amish community in Wellesley. It also excludes the large group of...

    • The Roots of Multiculturalism in Australia and Canada
      (pp. 267-286)
      Lois Foster and Paul Bartrop

      How nations manage their multi-ethnic populations has much to say about their basic philosophy andraison d’être.Official recognition of multiculturalism in Australian and Canadian society is thought to be a phenomenon of the past twenty or so years. Currently, the tensions, even contradictions, of multiculturalism in everyday life and in public policy are attracting attention. Yet for Canada, and to a lesser extent Australia, “multiculturalism” as existential reality is not new; neither is government intervention in order to “manage” it. What can the past reveal to put contemporary concerns into broader context and help us to better understand trends...

    • Cultural Tourism and Urban Imaging Strategies in Canada
      (pp. 287-304)
      C. Michael Hall

      Cities are major elements in any understanding of contemporary tourism. Serving as tourist generators and attractors they have long been the lifeblood of the tourism industry. In early twentieth century United States and Canada “tourists were attracted to urban places, for only there could modern life be seen in its most abundant flowering” (Jakle, 1985, 245). Indeed, Jakle (1985, 287) noted that “Cities were the most important tourist attractions in North America. More tourists travelled to see cities than any other kind of place”. However, despite its significance, it is only since the early 1980s that serious attention has been...

    • Post-multiculturalism and Immigration
      (pp. 305-324)
      Michael Lanphier

      During the past two decades both Canada and Australia have evolved parallel conceptions of multiculturalism primarily as orientations for domestic social policy. This policy has gained international attention and has been copied with modifications worldwide. Yet multicultural policy has developed global dimensions on another plane: as a particular form of reciprocal exchange. This form becomes increasingly relevant in international policy, especially immigration. This paper proposes to examine recent changes in multicultural policy as evident in Canadian and Australian contexts, impacting on immigration and refugee intake.

      Inherent in multiculturalism policy is the paradox of universalism of life claims versus the particularism...

    • Philosophy on Ice: the Public Intellectual in Canada
      (pp. 325-336)
      Robin Lathangue

      In the November 1994 issue,Saturday Nightran a photograph of Gordie Howe in the dressing room after the game in which he scored his one thousandth goal as a professional ice hockey player. The caption under the photograph included an apocryphal exchange between Gordie Howe and the American talk-show host, Dick Cavett, designed to show that in addition to being a brilliant athlete, Howe was a smart and witty guy. When Cavett once asked him why he neglected to wear a helmet to protect his head while playing hockey — “after all, you wear an athletic protector don’t you?” — the...

    • The Rodriguez Case and Care of the Dying
      (pp. 337-356)
      Michael Ashby

      Sue Rodriguez, a 44-year-old woman from Saanich, British Columbia died on 12 February 1994 after losing her appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada for medical assistance in dying. This paper is the result of a three week study trip to Canada in the fall of 1994, which permitted simultaneous access to three important sources: the posthumously published authorised biography of Sue Rodriguez —Uncommon Will(Hobbs Birnie and Rodriguez, 1994),¹ a moving CBC documentary — “Witness: Sue Rodriguez”, and the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada —Rodriguez v British Columbia (Attorney General)[I993] 3 SCR 519. It was also possible...

    • A Tale of Two Urban Myths: Deconstructing the “Toronto Model”
      (pp. 357-376)
      Paul Mees

      Outside the high density cities of Europe and Asia, the dominance of the car seems unstoppable. In Australia, as in the USA, “green modes” of transport — walking, cycling and particularly public transport — have been in steady decline since the second world war. This is commonly regarded as an unavoidable consequence of the sprawling form taken by post-war urban development.

      It is not difficult to see why public transport is difficult to operate in spread-out areas where patronage is thin, and why driving is difficult in congested urban cores. The authors of the Chicago Area Transportation Study, the Ur-archetype of road-oriented...

  8. Literary & Cultural Studies
    • Introduction: Literary & Cultural Studies
      (pp. 379-384)
      Gerry Turcotte

      The contributions to the Literary and Cultural Studies section of this volume are characterised by an extraordinary range of subject matter and by a wide variety of critical approaches. At once particular yet sweeping, they reflect on the local and the global, surveying everything from exploration literature to science fiction and crime writing. Christy Collis’ contribution reverses current trends in post-colonial criticism which figure exploration texts as “flawed documents which point up the inability of the British Empire to understand or to control the lands beyond its shores”. For Collis, such a reading ignores the on-going “discursive dominance” of Empire’s...

    • The “Last Link Legend” and Empire’s Arctic Quest
      (pp. 385-398)
      Christy Collis

      In recent Australian and Canadian post-colonial criticism, it has become a standard practice to read imperial exploration texts of the nineteenth century as failures, as flawed documents which point up the inability of the British empire to understand or to control the lands beyond its shores. Though these readings are productive, and necessary ones, in the rush to prove the ways in which exploration writing fails, less and less attention is being directed at the ways in which those texts succeed, at how the spatial writing of early British explorers continues to inform concepts of land in the post-colonial period....

    • Goldwin Smith as the Bystander
      (pp. 399-418)
      Thomas E. Tausky

      “He died in 19109’, Frank Underhill wrote of Goldwin Smith forty years after his funeral.

      The City of Toronto, which had long repudiated with loathing most of the opinions of its most distinguished citizen, decided to give him a public funeral; and the service was held in Convocation Hall at the university.... The federal government sent its young Minister of Labour, the Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King. A few of us students were recruited to serve as ushers. But the day of the funeral dawned cold, windy, and rainy. ... And we ushers were hardly needed, because so few of the...

    • On the Edge of Darkness: Timothy Findley’s Headhunting
      (pp. 419-426)
      Brian Edwards

      At risk of being offensively reductive, and exclusionary, it seems to me that whether our reading/interpretative strategies are poststructuralist (with an emphasis upon heterogeneity, difference, multiplicity, uncertainty and interrogation of supposed centres of authority), postmodernist (emphasising eclecticism, self-reflexiveness, play, parody, simulacra, discontinuity and petit récits) or postcolonialist (tracing structures of power, ideology, race, class, gender, genre and material effect), literature’s own double-plays, its positioning simultaneously inside and outside of “actual” cultural contexts (the contexts of its address, creation and interpretation) are what demand elucidationandresist finality.¹ But if there is no proper, that is, generally agreed, answer to the...

    • Janette Turner Hospital and the National Dilemma
      (pp. 427-436)
      Adam Shoemaker

      I was recently browsing through a university library and came upon what appeared to be an interesting discrepancy. In the “Australian Literature” section — PR9619.3 — I found two of Janette Turner Hospital’s novels:CharadesandThe Last Magician.Just down the same shelf were two other titles written by the same author and released by the same Australian publisher —The Tiger in the Tiger PitandBorderline— yet these were accessioned under the heading “Canadian Literature”. Then, turning to the university’s bookshop I found another of Hospital’s works — the short story collectionDislocations— simply catalogued under the heading “Fiction”.

      In the...

    • “Stabat Mater” or Elegy? The Construction of Maternity in Judith Wright’s and Margaret Atwood’s Poetry
      (pp. 437-452)
      Margaret Henderson

      In “Four Small Elegies” Margaret Atwood writes:

      This year we are making

      nothing but elegies.

      Do what you are good at,

      our parents always told us,

      make what you know.

      This is what we are making,

      these songs for the dying.

      You have to celebrate something.

      (Atwood, 1992,23)

      This celebration of “songs for the dying” links some of the major themes of Atwood’sPoems: 1976–1986.She draws a parallel between the ability to “make” — to create, gestate or nurture — with the ability to “know” — to believe — and ties both to death. In “Four Small Elegies” mourning and celebration are...

    • Writing Between Cultures: The Difference Engine
      (pp. 453-462)
      Andrew Enstice

      Canadian writer William Gibson is perhaps best known as creator of the cyberpunk world of theNeuromancertrilogy andVirtual Light,the voice of a high-tech future of disillusion and displacement. Born in the USA in 1948, he moved to Toronto in 1968, part of the flight north of a generation disillusioned by America’s Vietnam involvement. Many returned at war’s end, but Gibson stayed, eventually taking out Canadian citizenship.

      This displacement fiom self-centred American identity to the more ambivalent northern culture has been a major influence in Gibson’s work. His experience of dislocation was focussed and particularised when, in 1972,...

    • The Evolution of Canadian and Australian Speculative Fiction
      (pp. 463-474)
      Janeen Webb and Dena Bain Taylor

      That Canadian and Australian writers should be attracted to speculative fiction should surprise no one. The genre covers a broad range of nonrealistic works emphasising extrapolation, and it is axiomatic that one of the essential conditions for the growth and popularity of extrapolative fiction is a belief that tomorrow will be fundamentally different from today. And such belief is necessarily central in the lives of people engaged in the construction of new and different civilisations.

      The surprisingly early trend towards internationalism in both Canadian and Australian writing is most evident in speculative fiction, which has its roots in globally current...

    • Coca-Colonials Write Back: Localising the Global in Canadian Crime Fiction
      (pp. 475-488)
      Beryl Langer

      Working across two related discourses and disciplines — post-colonial literary theory, on the one hand, and the globalisation/localisation debate in sociology and anthropology, on the other — this paper sees Canadian crime fiction as a “local” version of a “global” form, which, given the centrality of “law and order” issues in constructions of what it means to be “Canadian” rather than “American”, is a prime site for the articulation of the Canadian nation. Writing and readingCanadiancrime fiction can thus be seen as a counter-hegemonic strategy within the global cultural market — a way of constructing and consuming cultural difference. The paper...

  9. Contributors
    (pp. 489-494)