Canadian Foreign Policy, 1966-1976

Canadian Foreign Policy, 1966-1976: Selected Speeches and Documents

Copyright Date: 1980
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  • Book Info
    Canadian Foreign Policy, 1966-1976
    Book Description:

    This volume demonstrates Canada's continuing involvement with the United Nations and nato, the shifting emphasis away from some traditional concerns, and the Canadian perspective.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9169-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. iii-xii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xiii-xvii)
  4. Abbreviations for main sources
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  5. I. The United Nations
    (pp. 1-30)

    Although Canada was elected to the Security Council for the third time in 1967, the United Nations was somewhat less significant in Canada’s external relations during the 1966-76 decade than during the preceding one. Government attention had focussed on the constitutional and parliamentary issues of the time, on problems of inflation and unemployment, and on such international difficulties as France and Quebec in the context of “La Francophonie”, and on the growing tendency for great-power settlements outside the context of the un. There was, furthermore, a general disillusionment with peace keeping after the eviction of unef by Egypt shortly before...

  6. II. NATO
    (pp. 31-61)

    The decade under review was a complex one both for nato itself as well as for Canada in the context of the Alliance. Early in 1966 France withdrew her land and air forces from the nato command structure (her sea forces had been withdrawn in 1963), although she remained a member of the Alliance. This decision caused a great deal of turmoil and readjustment, including the transfer of the military (shape) and political (Council) components of nato to Brussels, as well as the removal of Canadian and United States bases and installations from French soil. Fortunately, détente between East and...

  7. III. Canada—United States Relations
    (pp. 62-120)

    Relations with the United States ebbed and flowed throughout the decade. In the late 1960s they were still troubled by the war in Viet Nam and by the unsettled situation of China in the world community.* These issues were largely solved in the early 1970s and Canadian/American relations might have been expected to become somewhat more buoyant as a result. To the contrary, they reached their low point on August 15, 1971 when Canada found—much to its dismay—that it was definitely included in the provisions of the “Nixon Doctrine”. This policy measure was designed to correct United States...

  8. IV. The Far East
    (pp. 121-156)

    Three areas again dominated the scene of Canada’s relations with the Far East: Indochina, China, and Japan. Much the same pattern prevailed as during the previous ten years.

    The war in Vietnam reached its height during the late 1960s. An armistice was concluded in January 1973. Hostilities ceased finally in 1975 with Hanoi’s victory over Saigon. In 1973, Canada again accepted the task of supervising the peace, but this time laid down fairly stringent conditions before doing so. These conditions were not met and Canada withdrew from the International Commission for Control and Supervision, as the new peace-keeping body was...

  9. V. The Commonwealth
    (pp. 157-183)

    Five major developments dominated the Commonwealth scene between 1965 and 1975: the racial situation in Southern Africa; the problem of Rhodesia; the Civil War in Nigeria; Britain’s accession to the European Economic Community; and the Indo-Pakistani War, which led to the creation of Bangladesh. It is symptomatic of the dwindling impact of Commonwealth affairs in Canada that Canadian Governments during the period were generally content to follow the leadership of others regarding many of these questions. Indeed, as for some of them, leadership came less from within the Commonwealth than from outside. Even Britain’s accession to the European Economic Community,...

  10. VI. International Economic Policy
    (pp. 184-226)

    This chapter deals with Canada’s basic trade and tariff policies, balance-of-payments difficulties, trade with state-trading countries, relations with the European Economic Community, and problems of the international monetary system. It should be read in conjunction with the economic section of Chapter iii on Canada—United States relations and with Chapter vii on international development.

    The subjects dealt with concentrate on the Canadian approach which continued to favour international monetary stability and multilateral trading arrangements. It should of course be projected against the background of certain intractable economic problems affecting all countries in the world, and not just Canada—for instance,...

  11. VII. International Development
    (pp. 227-271)

    It was in the aid sector that the Trudeau Government made a major effort—indeed, in the opinion of many, its main contribution—in the foreign affairs field. Aid budgets, which in 1965-66 were hovering around $300,000,000 per annum, had by 1975-76 reached the vicinity of $1,000,000,000. In addition, the emphasis had changed. Programs had become more concentrated, with efforts expended mainly in the forty poorest countries of the world. Bilateral aid had become less tied to procurement from Canadian sources and therefore more flexible. In addition, cida is now authorized to pay all shipping costs. More than a third...

  12. VIII. The Environment
    (pp. 272-298)

    Domestic and international concern about environmental problems intensified between 1965 and 1975. Massive oil spills in the oceans have served to galvanize public attention, as has the deteriorating quality of the atmosphere and the water in many countries of the world.

    This concern has embraced such fields as: population growth and housing; the protection of the living resources of the land and of the sea; food and water supplies; the cleanliness of the atmosphere; the preservation from pollution of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, the oceans, outer space.

    These questions have been dealt with mainly at large-scale international conferences conducted...

  13. IX. The Provinces and Foreign Policy
    (pp. 299-328)

    Provincial interest in Canada’s external relations increased and broadened during the decade, ranging from Quebec’s concentration on education in the French-speaking world to Alberta’s concern about energy exports to the United States and Ontario’s about investments and energy supplies.

    Quebec’s early moves abroad are documented in the previous volume. They were given a good deal of impetus as a result of President de Gaulle’s visit to Quebec during the summer of 1967 and the growing support he gave to Quebec’s overseas ventures until he left office in 1969.

    The invitation received and accepted by the Quebec Government to attend a...

  14. X. Foreign Policy Review: 1968-1970
    (pp. 329-362)

    Foreign policy is not created in a vacuum. Possibly the most fundamental influence on the formulation and implementation of a country’s foreign policy is its geographical location. A country’s site tends to give to its external policies a degree of continuity frequently more consistent and longer lasting than its internal policies. The foreign policy of the Czars and the Commissars, for instance, had much in common; that of pre-Mao and post-Mao China also. History, traditions, culture—and those of a country’s neighbours—are also basic components. Canada and Poland both have powerful neighbours. Yet how different their histories and foreign...

  15. Suggested Reading
    (pp. 363-366)