Canadian International Development Assistance Policies

Canadian International Development Assistance Policies: An Appraisal

Copyright Date: 1994
Pages: 392
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  • Book Info
    Canadian International Development Assistance Policies
    Book Description:

    Topics covered include Canadian food aid and the varied factors that have determined its use, the complex relationship between CIDA and Canadian non-governmental organizations, and CIDA assistance to the major multilateral institutions. There is also detailed discussion of CIDA's choice of recipient countries; its use of aid for trade promotion, human rights and development assistance; issues relating to the administration of the aid program; its recent support for the International Monetary Fund and World Bank leverage on the economic policies of the recipient countries; and two case studies, one of public policy dialogue on aid policies in Central America and the second of Canadian aid for development in Asia. In the final chapters the work of CIDA is assessed from a comparative international perspective and the editor, Cranford Pratt, reviews the main determinants of Canadian aid policy and explains why there has been such a significant erosion in CIDA's declared objective of helping the world's poor. This timely and important book contains contributions by Tim Brodhead, Marcia Burdette, Mark Charlton, Tim Draimin, David Gillies, Terence Keenleyside, David Morrison, Katharine Pearson, Cranford Pratt, David Protheroe, Phillip Rawkins, Martin Rudner, and Jean Philippe Thérien.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6469-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-xii)
    Cranford Pratt
    • 1 Canadian Development Assistance: A Profile
      (pp. 3-24)

      This volume concentrates by deliberate design on the evolution of Canadian development assistance policies since 1977. The logic behind this decision will become clear in the concluding chapter, where an effort is made to identify the several major stages through which Canadian aid policies have passed since 1950. The argument, briefly put, is that the appointment of Marcel Dupuy as president of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1977 marked the intensification of Ottawa’s continuing and effective effort to ensure that CIDA’S policies reflected Canadian foreign policy objectives and long-term economic interests. For a brief period before that date,...

    • 2 Canada’s Multilateral Aid and Diplomacy
      (pp. 25-54)

      This chapter reviews the recent history, concentrating on the 1980s, of Canada’s multilateral aid policies and the political, economic, and other factors that lay behind them. It points out many accomplishments of Canada’s diplomacy and spending patterns in this field but also identifies several constraints and failures of will that have diluted the ideal of policy-making predominantly driven by development considerations. For 30 years, this country has directed much-above-average portions of its official development assistance (ODA) through multilateral channels. This came to 32 per cent of total aid in 1990/91,¹ which shines in comparison with the 1989–91 three-year average...

    • 3 Continuity and Change in Canadian Food Aid
      (pp. 55-86)

      From its modest beginnings in 1951, the Canadian food aid program has evolved into a large and complex part of Canada’s overseas development assistance. During the past four decades, over four billion dollars, or fully one-fifth of all Canadian foreign aid, has been offered in the form of food commodities. Although Canada’s relations with developing countries have become more complex in light of such issues as trade and monetary reform, food aid remains one of the largest single components of Canada’s development assistance.

      No other form of Canadian assistance can inspire as powerful a public emotional response as food aid....

    • 4 Paying the Piper: CIDA and Canadian NGOS
      (pp. 87-120)

      This chapter provides an overview of the role that Canadian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played within Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) program and of the evolving relationship between the NGOS and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). After a period from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, during which CIDA and the NGOs seemed to draw closer together, the pattern has become far more complex. A number of factors have led CIDA to “use” NGOs for a far wider range of responsibilities while also developing major new programs within which it, rather than the NGOs, identifies projects to be supported....

    • 5 The Choice of Bilateral Aid Recipients
      (pp. 123-155)

      By the mid-1970s, Canada’s bilateral aid program, once concentrated highly in three countries in the Indian subcontinent, was dispersed widely among almost ninety countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Although the choice of recipients reflected foreign and domestic policy considerations that had little to do with levels of development, the proportion of allocations to the least developed and other low-income countries was well above the average of Western donors in the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD.¹ A major policy review leading up to publication in 1975 of CIDA’SStrategy for International Development Cooperation1975–1980 attempted to...

    • 6 An Institutional Analysis of CIDA
      (pp. 156-185)

      The central concern of this chapter is CIDA’S complex organization and the dynamics internal to the agency and underlining its relations with other elements of the government of Canada. This approach provides a vantage-point from which we may better understand the efforts of CIDA and its senior management to ensure organizational survival in difficult times. It also seeks to balance a focus on senior management with consideration of the perspective of those at the working level in the agency. “Top-down” and “bottom-up” views will be brought together in an examination of the interaction of efforts at reform and the priorities...

    • 7 Export Promotion and Canadian Development Assistance
      (pp. 186-209)

      There are few issues more contentious in the literature on overseas development assistance (ODA) than the place of commercial interests in aid giving. Is export promotion compatible with the humanitarian foundations of development aid? Is there a trade-off among aid-giving objectives?¹ Do commercial objectives undermine aid “quality”?² Where one stands on the issues seems to depend on where one sits. Donor agencies and business point to mutual interests between rich and poor countries. On this view, economic self-interest is the most potent logic for helping poor countries. Fast-growing regions, such as Southeast Asia, are potentially lucrative markets for Western entrepreneurs....

    • 8 Structural Adjustment and Canadian Aid Policy
      (pp. 210-239)

      Since the late 1970s, many member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have been struggling with major reforms of their economies. These years saw the collapse of the Keynesian consensus in macro-economics, with “sharply reduced faith in the efficacy of policy interventions and an assertion of the superiority of market solutions” being the main features.¹ On the political front, the right-of-centre parties absorbed theories based on supply-based economics and monetarism and proposed such measures as constraints on social welfare, reduced taxes on the rich, cuts to the civil service, deregulation of the private sector, and privatization...

    • 9 Aiding Rights: Canada and the Advancement of Human Dignity
      (pp. 240-267)

      Taking human rights into account in the shaping of Canadian development assistance policy has become a matter of considerable public policy attention since the late 1970s. From a humane, internationalist perspective at least, aid is or should be inherently about human rights. As early as 1976, for instance, Paul Gérin-Lajoie, then president of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), wrote that the central objective of aid was “the total liberation of man” – liberation, first, from hunger, disease, illiteracy, unemployment, and chronic underemployment, but liberation also from “the use of force to silence dissenters, systematic recourse to political imprisonment, and the...

    • 10 Public Policy Dialogue and Canadian Aid: The Case of Central America
      (pp. 268-291)

      Throughout the 1980s, Canadian foreign policy towards Central America was of enormous interest to thousands of Canadians.¹ Voluntary agency and church workers, teachers and students, farmers, fishers, and tradespeople travelled to the region in unprecedented numbers. Nicaragua, especially, became the focus of extensive fundraising and advocacy campaigns in Canada by non-governmental organizations (NCOs) and solidarity groups. To many Canadians, the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, which vaulted the Sandinistas into government, began a social transformation that would, over the following decade, provide a unique opportunity to support equitable development.

      From 1979 onwards, media coverage of events in the region exploded. Southam...

    • 11 Canadian Development Cooperation with Asia: Strategic Objectives and Policy Goals
      (pp. 292-312)

      Canadian development cooperation with Asia, as with other developing regions, takes place within a broader foreign policy framework. Figuring prominently in Canada’s foreign policy regarding Asian developing countries are concerns over international politics and security, economics and trade, development, environment, energy, and social/cultural relations.¹ Domestic critics of Canadian aid policy tend to disparage any attempt to link development assistance to other foreign policy considerations, especially to commercial and trade objectives, lest the development objective be subordinated.² Reflecting this viewpoint, the 1987 inquiry by the House of Commons standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade (Winegard Committee) into official development...

    • 12 Canadian Aid: A Comparative Analysis
      (pp. 315-333)

      This chapter compares the aid policy of Canada with that of other member states of the Development Assistance Committee (DAG) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).¹ A comparative overview of the major components of Canada’s external assistance will be followed by an attempt, by way of conclusion, to see how aid policy reflects Canada’s distinct identity in the international arena. Although the comparative approach is fruitful for analysing social relationships, be they international or domestic, comparative studies on aid are curiously few and far between. Of those that exist, not all deal with Canada,² evidently, and, of...

    • 13 Humane Internationalism and Canadian Development Assistance Policies
      (pp. 334-370)

      The detailed and substantial chapters in this volume provide an opportunity to consider a major paradox in Canadian development assistance policies. The Canadian public and Parliament have supported aid for over forty years, primarily for humanitarian reasons; nevertheless, most scholarly commentators have concluded that humanitarian considerations have played little role within government in the shaping of those policies.¹ On the basis of the chapters above, we ought to be able to consider this paradox rather closely and to discuss what have in fact been the major determinants of Canadian aid policies.

      The Western Middle Powers Project, in which 18 scholars...

  7. Contributors
    (pp. 371-374)
  8. Index
    (pp. 375-378)