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Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience At Harvard and Radcliffe

Werner Sollors
Caldwell Titcomb
Thomas A. Underwood
Copyright Date: 1993
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 584
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    Blacks at Harvard
    Book Description:

    The history of blacks at Harvard mirrors, for better or for worse, the history of blacks in the United States. Harvard, too, has been indelibly scarred by slavery, exclusion, segregation, and other forms of racist oppression. At the same time, the nation's oldest university has also, at various times, stimulated, supported, or allowed itself to be influenced by the various reform movements that have dramatically changed the nature of race relations across the nation. The story of blacks at Harvard is thus inspiring but painful, instructive but ambiguous - a paradoxical episode in the most vexing controversy of American life: the "race question." The first and only book on its subject, Blacks at Harvard is distinguished by the rich variety of its sources. Included in this documentary history are scholarly overviews, poems, short stories, speeches, well-known memoirs by the famous, previously unpublished memoirs by the lesser known, newspaper accounts, letters, official papers of the university, and transcripts of debates. Among Harvard's black alumni and alumnae are such illustrious figures as W.E.B. Du Bois, Monroe Trotter, and Alain Locke; Countee Cullen and Sterling Brown both received graduate degrees. The editors have collected here writings as diverse as those of Booker T. Washington, William Hastie, Malcolm X, and Muriel Snowden to convey the complex ways in which Harvard has affected the thinking of African Americans and the ways, in turn, in which African Americans have influenced the traditions of Harvard and Radcliffe. Notable among the contributors are significant figures in African American letters: Phyllis Wheatley, William Melvin Kelley, Marita Bonner, James Alan McPherson and Andrea Lee. Equally prominent in the book are some of the nation's leading historians: Carter Woodson, Rayford Logan, John Hope Franklin, and Nathan I. Huggins. A vital sourcebook, Blacks at Harvard is certain to nourish scholarly inquiry into the social and intellectual history of African Americans at elite national institutions and serves as a telling metaphor of this nation's past.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-8897-4
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
    (pp. xiii-xv)
    (pp. xvii-xxxvi)

    The history of blacks at Harvard mirrors, for better or for worse, the history of blacks in the United States. Harvard, too, has been indelibly scarred by slavery, exclusion, segregation, and other forms of racist oppression. At the same time, the nation’s oldest university has also supported and allowed itself to be influenced by the various reform movements that have dramatically changed the nature of race relations across the nation. The story of blacks at Harvard is thus inspiring but painful, instructive but ambiguous—a paradoxical episode in the most vexing controversy of American life: "the race question."

    The evolution...

    (pp. 1-8)

    The earliest reference to a black at Harvard was the admission by the wife of the College’s first head that a slave had lain on a student’s bed in 1639. As the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries rolled on, the list of the leading slaveholding families in Massachusetts contained the names of numerous Harvard men, including Presidents Increase Mather (1685-1701) and Benjamin Wadsworth (1725-37). In the eighteenth century and later, blacks in and around Boston were encouraged to attend Harvard’s Commencement, which became for them the most festive day of the year; in 1773 they could have heard two seniors debating...

    (pp. 9-10)

    Phillis Wheatley was born sometime in 1753 (perhaps 1754) in West Africa and brought to Boston on a slave ship in 1761. Though frail, she was bought by the well-known merchant John Wheatley and his wife Susanna, and given the name of the schooner that had borne her. Spared from hard toil, she received instruction in English, Latin, and other subjects within the family, and made such fast progress that she was writing letters and verse as early as 1765, publishing her first poem in 1767. In the same year she wrote the first version of a poem to Harvard...

    (pp. 11-17)

    From Harvard’s very first Commencement in 1642, it was standard practice for the public exercises to include lengthy debates in which two degree candidates took opposing sides of a given topic. At the Commencement on 21 July 1773 two seniors engaged in a disputation on the legitimacy of slavery. It elicited so much comment that the debate was immediately printed and published, running to forty-eight pages. We offer some excerpts from the text to convey the tenor and flavor of the event.

    Both speakers were natives of Newbury, Massachusetts, and both received an A.B. in 1773 and an A.M. in...

    (pp. 19-35)

    Trouble among the Medical Students of Harvard University—The following facts have been collected respecting some unhappy proceedings last week at the Massachusetts Medical College in this city. Among the students attending the medical lectures, arethree colored young men. One of them is from Pittsburgh, Pa.; one belongs in this city, and we believe is a native, a son of the late Rev. Mr. Snowden, a colored preacher of much eminence for many years; the locale of the other is unknown to us. They are all, as we have understood [not Delany, however], under the immediate auspices of the...

    (pp. 37-58)

    Richard Theodore Greener ’70 was the first Negro to graduate from Harvard College. … A Harvard education was by no means Greener’s youthful ambition; in fact, though his grandfather had taught in a school for colored children in Baltimore, there was no college tradition in his family. His father, when Greener was born on January 30,1844, in Philadelphia, was a steward on a Liverpool packet. A few years later the father shipped on a California packet, and in 1853 the California gold fever hit him. Successful in his mining for a while, he was taken ill and suffered losses, and...

    (pp. 59-68)

    Clement Garnett Morgan was born in Stafford County, Virginia, on 9 January 1859. His slave parents, on being emancipated, moved to Washington, where their son attended high school. Morgan then worked as a barber and went to St. Louis to teach school for four years. Craving a college education, he spent two years at Boston Latin School as preparation for entering Harvard at the age of 27. Barbering and substantial scholarships covered most of his expenses. As a junior he won first prize in the annual Boylston oratory contest (the second prize going to his black classmate W.E.B. Du Bois)....

  11. W.E.B. DU BOIS
    (pp. 69-89)

    William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on 23 February 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, where he was the only black member of his high-school graduating class in 1884. After a year’s mill job and a scholarship offer, he had the wherewithal to go to all-black Fisk University in Tennessee, where he was granted sophomore standing, edited the school paper, and received his A.B. in 1888. Entering Harvard (a longtime goal) as a junior, he took another A.B. in 1890, an A.M. in 1891, and—after studying in Berlin—in 1895 became the first black to receive a Harvard Ph.D....

    (pp. 91-100)

    William Monroe Trotter was born on 7 April 1872 in Ohio, but grew up in a Boston suburb. At Harvard not only was he the first black student ever elected to Phi Beta Kappa, but he also received this honor as one of the First Eight chosen in the spring of his junior year. After being graduatedmagna cum laudein 1895 he took more courses and earned an A.M. degree in 1896.

    After a few years of negotiating real-estate mortgages, Monroe Trotter found his true calling by establishing a weekly black newspaper, theGuardian, which made its debut on...

    (pp. 101-112)

    Booker Taliaferro Washington was born a plantation slave near Hale’s Ford, Virginia, on 5 April 1856. He acquired a rudimentary education and eventually worked his way through Hampton Institute, graduating in 1875. In 1881 he was chosen to be the founding principal of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a post he kept until his death from arteriosclerosis and overwork on 14 November 1915, by which time he had built the school into an internationally renowned institution with more than a hundred buildings for its 1500 black students.

    Washington’s first contact with Harvard came in 1887, when his wife Olivia felt his...

    (pp. 113-122)

    William Henry Ferris was born on 20 July 1874 in New Haven, Connecticut, where he was graduated from Hillhouse High School in 1891. In 1895, he received an A.B. from Yale University, which also awarded him an M.A. in 1899. He accepted an invitation to become a charter member of the American Negro Academy in 1897, at which time he entered Harvard Divinity School for two years, switching to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences for a year and taking a second M.A. in 1900. He did a little teaching in the South, and then was pastor of churches...

    (pp. 123-128)

    Leslie Pinckney Hill was born in Lynchburg, Virginia on 14 May 1880, the son of a former slave. As a youth he mastered the trumpet and envisioned a career in music. When his family moved to East Orange, New Jersey, he transferred to the local high school and, by accelerated study, was able to skip the junior year, winding up near the top of his graduating class in 1898. In the fall of 1899 he entered Harvard, supplementing scholarship aid by working as a waiter. He studied Classics, history, English composition and literature, and fine arts. Active in debating from...

    (pp. 129-151)

    Alain LeRoy Locke was born to schoolteacher parents on 13 September 1886 in Philadelphia, where he attended Central High School and the Philadelphia School of Pedagogy. A member of the Harvard class of 1908, he completed his requirements in three years, and received his A.B.magna cum laudein 1907, also winning the top Bowdoin Prize for an essay on Tennyson as well as election to Phi Beta Kappa. He became the first and, until 1963, only black American to win a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford, from which he took a Litt.B. degree in 1912.

    In 1918 he became—nafter...

    (pp. 153-158)

    Edward Smyth Jones was born in Natchez, Mississippi, sometime in March of 1881. His slave parents, Hawk and Rebecca, lacked formal education, but he attended local schools and developed a taste for reading and writing. For fourteen months during 1902-03 he studied at nearby Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College in exchange for labor. Continuing his reading and writing in Louisville, Kentucky, he brought out, under the nickname "Invincible Ned," a book of poems entitledThe Rose That Bloometh in My Heart(1908). Among its thirty poems was "A Psalm of Love," a parody of the well-known "A Psalm of Love"...

  18. EVA B. DYKES
    (pp. 159-167)

    Eva Beatrice Dykes was born on 13 August 1893 in Washington, D.C., where she attended the famous M Street (later Dunbar) High School and went on to get an A.B. from Howard University in 1914. With financial assistance from her uncle and from scholarship funds, she entered Radcliffe, majored in English, and in 1917 received a second A.B.magna cum laude, followed by an A.M. the next year. With a dissertation on Alexander Pope and his influence, she took a Radcliffe Ph.D. in 1921—one of the first three black women to earn this degree (with Sadie T.M. Alexander in...

    (pp. 169-187)

    Caroline Stewart Bond Day was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on 18 November 1889, the daughter of Moses and Georgia Stewart. Upon her mother’s second marriage, to John Bond, Caroline Stewart took her stepfather’s surname. She attended Atlanta University, from which she received an A.B. in 1912. For a year she taught at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College, and then spent time working for the YWCA in Montclair, N.J. In 1916 she entered Radcliffe and received a second A.B. in 1919. Following her marriage to Aaron Day in 1920, she spent a year as dean of women at Paul Quinn College...

    (pp. 189-194)

    Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, on 17 August 1887, the youngest of eleven children. A period of foreign travel, observation, and reading (1909–14) led him on his return to Jamaica to found the Universal Negro Improvement Association, whose goal was "the general uplift of the Negro peoples of the world," and whose motto was "One God! One Aim! One Destiny!" Making little headway at home, he moved to New York’s Harlem in 1916 and found fertile ground for an unprecedented black mass movement. Branches of his U.N.I.A arose around the country, and he raised...

    (pp. 195-227)

    Harvard’s President A. Lawrence Lowell touched off the most publicized college discrimination controversy of the 1920s when he simultaneously barred Negroes from the freshman dormitories and inaugurated a quota system for Jewish students. Lowell’s rationale was doubtless complex, but he appears to have been motivated essentially by a desire not to offend white racists and to maintain Harvard’s aristocratic tradition. The exclusion of blacks was relatively easy to explain: Residence in the freshman dormitories had recently been made compulsory, Lowell noted, and "we have not thought it possible to compel men of different races to reside together. … We owe...

    (pp. 229-234)

    Marieta (later Marita) Odette Bonner was born in Boston on 16 June 1898 and grew up in neighboring Brookline. She attended Brookline High School, where she wrote for the student magazine,The Sagamore, and was graduated in 1917. After a year at the Cabot School, she entered Radcliffe in the fall of 1918, and majored in English and Comparative Literature (becoming fluent in German). She was admitted to Charles T. Copeland’s famous writing seminar; and one of her sketches, "Dandelion Season," was selected to be read annually to Radcliffe classes. An accomplished pianist (like her sister), she also composed the...

    (pp. 235-240)

    Sterling Allen Brown was born on 1 May 1901 in Washington, D.C., where he went to the famous Dunbar High School. He attended Williams College as one of four black students (one in each class), was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year, and took his B.A. in 1922. The following year he earned an A.M. studying literature at Harvard, where his professors included the renowned Bliss Perry and George Lyman Kittredge (’92). He returned to Harvard in 1931-32, but decided not to proceed to a doctorate.

    After brief teaching posts at Virginia Seminary and College in Lynchburg,...

    (pp. 241-253)

    Countee Leroy Porter Cullen was born on 30 May 1903, the unproven claimants to place being Louisville, Baltimore, and New York City (the first seems the likeliest). We do not know who his natural parents were, but he was adopted as a teenager by a New York minister. He attended the mostly white De Witt Clinton High School, where he was editor-in-chief of the school paper and associate editor of its literary magazine. He took first prize in an oratorical competition, was vice-president of his senior class, and won election to the honor society with a 92-percent average. He had...

    (pp. 255-259)

    Ralph Johnson Bunche was born in Detroit on 7 August 1904. Grandson of a slave, he was orphaned at twelve and thereafter cared for by his maternal grandmother in Los Angeles, where he was valedictorian of his high-school class. A gifted debater, he also won a four-year athletic scholarship to UCLA, where he played on three champion basketball teams. Despite part-time jobs, he wrote for the college paper, presided over the debating society, was sports editor of the yearbook, and a member of Phi Beta Kappa. He graduatedsumma cum laudein 1927.

    Proceeding to Harvard, Bunche earned an A.M....

    (pp. 261-269)

    William Henry Hastie was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, on 17 November 1904, the only child of a college-educated father and a schoolteacher mother. He attended the celebrated Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C., finishing as class valedictorian and winning a scholarship to Amherst. One of four blacks in his class, he majored in mathematics and German, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and was graduatedmagna cum laudeas valedictorian of the class of 1925. To earn money, he taught mathematics and science for two years at a manual-training school, and then entered Harvard Law School, where his high scholastic...

    (pp. 271-279)

    Rayford Whittingham Logan, a butler’s son, was born on 7 January 1897 in Washington, D.C., where he attended the Thaddeus Stevens School and the renowned M Street (later Dunbar) High School. At Williams College he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and received a B.A. in 1917 and an M.A. in 1929. During World War I he was a first lieutenant in the all-black 93rd Division, and remained abroad for several years to assist W.E.B. Du Bois in the work of the Pan-African Congress. At Harvard he earned a second M.A. in 1932 and a Ph.D. in history in 1936,...

    (pp. 281-286)

    Huddie William Ledbetter was born outside Mooringsport, Louisiana, on 21 January 1885. He learned music from his mother (a choir director) and two musical uncles, and became known as the best guitarist and singer in the region by the age of 16. After his first marriage he moved to Texas, where he met the famous bluesman "Blind" Lemon Jefferson, who performed with him and taught him many songs.

    Quick to anger, Ledbetter spent three stretches in prison for murder or assault (1918–25; 1930–34; 1939–40). It was during his second imprisonment that folklorists John and Alan Lomax discovered...

    (pp. 287-295)

    John Hope Franklin was born on 2 January 1915 in the tiny black Oklahoma town of Rentiesville, where his father was its postmaster and only lawyer. Both parents were college-educated and kept plenty of books at home. After the family moved to Tulsa, Franklin attended the all-black Booker T. Washington High School, where he was active in debating, singing, and trumpet-playing, and finished as class valedictorian in 1931. A scholarship plus odd jobs enabled him to attend Fisk University, where he found time to continue debating and singing in addition to serving as student-government president. Majoring in history, he received...

    (pp. 297-300)

    Muriel Sutherland Snowden was born in Orange, New Jersey, on 14 July 1916, one of three children of a dentist. She grew up in nearby Glen Ridge and was class valedictorian at its high school. She received her A.B. from Radcliffe in 1938 with a concentration in Romance Languages, but soon decided that her future lay in social work. From 1938 to 1943 she worked for a New Jersey welfare board, and then won a fellowship for graduate study in community organization and race relations at the New York School of Social Work. After a return to Cambridge in 1948...

    (pp. 301-309)

    [Gertrude] Elizabeth Fitzgerald was born on 28 December 1927 in Baltimore, Maryland. Moving to the Boston area, she attended Brookline High School. At Radcliffe she concentrated in history and developed a lasting love of choral singing. She was elected secretary of the junior class and, the next year, president and class marshal (the first black in Radcliffe history to be so honored). After her graduation in 1948, she spent several years as a children’s librarian at the Boston Public Library. Later at the University of Pittsburgh, she earned a Master of Library Science degree (1971), followed by a Ph.D. in...

    (pp. 311-316)

    Harold Russell Scott Jr. was born in Morristown, New Jersey, on 6 September 1935. He attended Phillips Exeter Academy, majored in English at Harvard, and received his degree in 1957. As an undergraduate he demonstrated astonishing versatility as an actor in roles ranging from the adolescent Boy in Tennessee Williams’The Purificationto the elderly Duke of York in Shakespeare’sRichard II, and including the title parts in Sophocles’Oedipus Rexand O’Neill’sEmperor Jonesalong with the dancing role of Paris inThe Golden Appleand the singing role of Jupiter in Offenbach’sOrpheus in Hades. Within a year...

    (pp. 317-333)

    William Melvin Kelley Jr. was born in New York City on 1 November 1937. After attending the private Fieldston School, he spent parts of five years at Harvard (Class of ’60) but left before completing his degree. An English concentrator, he studied with novelist John Hawkes and three-time Pulitzer Prize winner Archibald MacLeish. His short story "The Poker Party," published in theHarvard Advocate, won the Dana Reed Prize as the best piece of undergraduate writing.

    Kelley’s novels range from the FaulknerianA Different Drummer(1962), which won two awards, to the JoyceanDunfords Travels Everywheres(1970), which brought him...

    (pp. 335-341)

    In the spring term of 1963, black students held informal meetings with a view to establishing an official organization, the Association of African and Afro-American Students. In late April, they adopted a constitution; but on 6 May the Harvard Council for Undergraduate Affairs voted against approval, 14-5, because of the "discriminatory membership clause." On 9 May, theCrimsonprinted a letter from Archie C. Epps, then a graduate student. This was followed by an editorial advocating recognition, along with a series of four dissenting editorials, of which we reprint the last. In October, the AAAAS appealed to the administration for...

    (pp. 343-367)

    Academicians and laymen have often thought of Negro radicalism or nationalism in terms of pathology. In other words, Negro personalities in radical movements are thought to be abnormal, or shysters, or freaks of some sort. Accordingly, Negro radicalism is conceived of as the fervent product of systematic and protracted frustration; its ideology, a pathological response to economic, social, and cultural discrimination. The Negro radical movement is never credited with meaning what it says. Its pronouncements are interpreted rather than heard. None of its arguments is accorded the courtesy one gives reality. They are tolerated as the angry response of Negroes...

    (pp. 369-378)

    James Alan McPherson was born in Savannah, Georgia, on 16 September 1943. Working as a dining-car waiter during the summer, he earned a B.A in English and history from Morris Brown College in 1965. Recruited by Harvard Law School, he financed his Cambridge studies in part as janitor of an apartment house next door to theHarvard Crimsonbuilding, and received his LL.B in 1968. Like Archibald MacLeish, he went from a Harvard law degree to a distinguished career in creative writing.Hue and Cry, a volume of short stories, appeared in 1969 and won the National Institute of Arts...

    (pp. 379-405)

    On April 9, 1968, a year to the day before the seizure of University Hall, 80 black students stood alone on the steps of Memorial Church. Inside the church, President Pusey led more than 1200 mourners, all but a handful of them white, in eulogizing Martin Luther King, slain five days before in Memphis. Outside, the members of the Association of African and Afro-American Students (Afro) commemorated Dr. King in their own way, with demands on Harvard, made in the spirit of the movement for which King had stood. Inside, the President spoke of the man, not of the movement:...

  38. THE 1969 YEARBOOK
    (pp. 407-425)

    In Harvard’sYearbook 333, honoring the Class of 1969, the editors included a special section presenting essays by eight black students. Of these we here reprint three—two by seniors and one by a sophomore.

    Muriel Morisey Spence was born in Greensboro, North Carolina, on 7 September 1947, attended school in Philadelphia, and was a history concentrator at Radcliffe, from which she was graduated in 1969. After short stints as a teacher in Boston and a journalist in Washington, she worked in several capacities for Congressman Walter Fauntroy, the House Judiciary Committee, the Black Women’s Community Development Foundation, and Representative...

    (pp. 427-434)

    Ernest James Wilson III was born on 3 May 1948 in Washington, D.C., where he attended the Capitol Page School. At Harvard he was business manager of theHarvard Journal of Negro Affairs, and edited its special issue on "The Black Press." A concentrator in government, he received his A.B. in 1970. Pursuing graduate studies in Berkeley at the University of California, he earned his M.A in 1973 and Ph.D. in political science in 1978. For a time he served as legislative assistant to Congressman Charles Diggs Jr., and in 1974 was the first-prize winner in the first Du Bois...

    (pp. 435-443)

    Emory Junior West was born on 5 February 1950 and grew up in Miami, where he attended the Dorsey Junior High School and Miami Central High School. At Harvard he won two Hatch Prizes for his poetry, which appeared in theAdvocateand theHarvard Journal of Afro-American Affairs. His ardent interest in the early history of blacks at Harvard yielded two exhibits in Widener Library and two articles in theHarvard Bulletin(November 1971; May 1972). In 1972 he received his A.B. in anthropologycum laude, and proceeded to an M.A. at Berkeley in 1973 and a certificate in...

    (pp. 445-452)

    Andrea Nancy Lee was born in Philadelphia on 27 April 1953, and prepared for college at the Baldwin School for Girls in nearby Bryn Mawr. Majoring in English, she was graduatedmagna cum laudefrom Radcliffe College in 1974 and received an A.M. there in Comparative Literature in 1978. A writer for theNew Yorker, she is best known for her reportRussian Journal(1981), which won the Jean Stein Award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters; and for her novelSarah Phillips(1984), from which the chapter "Fine Points" is here reprinted. Andrea Lee has...

    (pp. 453-456)

    Leigh Alexandra Jackson was born on 29 October 1960 in Washington, D.C., where she prepared for college at the Sidwell Friends School. At Radcliffe she concentrated in philosophy and received her degree in 1982. For a while she worked in New York City for the Columbia University Press and for an advertising firm, and later took graduate courses at Stanford University. Returning to Washington, she served from 1986 to 1988 as assistant editor and book editor of the fledglingAmerican Visions, a magazine of Afro-American culture. In the summer of 1988 she began writing for theWashington Post, moving in...

    (pp. 457-473)

    The Third World Coalition of Harvard Law School feels strongly that the course created and taught by former Harvard Law School professor Derrick Bell, Constitutional Law and Minority Issues, should continue to be instructed by a Third World professor. This course is concerned with the legal system and Third World people in the United States and, therefore, it is extremely important that it be taught by an instructor who can identify and empathize with the social, cultural, economic, and political experiences of the Third World community.

    The Law School community would greatly benefit if Third World professors were brought to...

    (pp. 475-478)

    Farah Jasmine Griffin was born in Philadelphia on 23 February 1963, and prepared for college at the Baldwin School for Girls in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. As an undergraduate she was a reporter for theHarvard Crimsonand was also active in several black organizations. She received her degree in 1985 with honors in History and Literature. Following a period as research associate for Judge A Leon Higginbotham Jr. in Philadelphia, she embarked on a Ph.D. program in American Studies at Yale in the fall of 1986. She received a fellowship from the American Association of University Women to complete a...

    (pp. 479-484)

    Judith Barbara Jackson was born in Chicago on 3 November 1965, and prepared for college at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. At Harvard she won several scholarships, participated in black organizations, served for two years as a freshman prefect, and held posts on the business board of theHarvard Crimson. In 1987 she received her A.B. in Literaturemagna cum laude. Following graduation she began work as a financial analyst for Morgan Stanley & Co. in Chicago before embarking on graduate work in English at Princeton University.

    I came to Harvard thinking I could become as much a part of...

    (pp. 485-489)

    Shannah Vanessa Braxton was born on 25 August 1966 in Staten Island, New York, where she attended Curtis High School. At Harvard she was active with the Third World Student Alliance and the Harvard Foundation on Race Relations, also serving as president of the Black Students Association in 1986-87. A concentrator in government, she wrote a thesis on housing and received her A.B.cum laudein 1988. She then began work in Boston as public relations officer for Elizabeth Stone House, a center for battered and mentally ill women.

    Historically, members of the Asian, Black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Native...

    (pp. 491-497)

    Martin Luther Kilson Jr. was born on 14 February 1931 in East Rutherford, New Jersey and educated in a small town in Pennsylvania. He entered Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) in 1949, and became class valedictorian, receiving his B.A.magna cum laudein 1953. At Harvard he earned an M.A. in 1958 and a Ph.D. in political science the next year. He started teaching at Harvard as lecturer in government in 1962, was assistant professor of government, 1964-68, and was appointed professor of government in 1969. He was named to the Frank G. Thomson chair in 1988. In 1970 he was elected...

    (pp. 499-503)

    Eileen Jackson Southern was born on 19 February 1920 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She attended public schools in several midwestern cities, completing high school in Chicago. Scholarships enabled her to attend the University of Chicago, where she earned a B.A. in 1940 and M.A. in 1941. Owing to institutional racism and discrimination in northern colleges at that time, she was obliged to seek employment at historically black institutions in the South, where from 1941 to 1951 she taught at Prairie View State College, Southern University, Alcorn College, and Claflin University while also concertizing as a pianist. Deciding to curtail performing, she...

    (pp. 505-512)

    Nathan Irvin Huggins was born in Chicago on 14 January 1927. The University of California at Berkeley conferred on him an A.B. in 1954 and an M.A. in 1955. At Harvard he received a second M.A. in 1959 and a Ph.D. in history in 1962. He taught at California State University at Long Beach (1962-64), Lake Forest College (1964-66), the University of Massachusetts at Boston (1966-69, during which period he was also president of the American Museum of Negro History), and Berkeley (1969-70) prior to his tenure as professor of history at Columbia University (1970-1980). In 1980 he returned to...

    (pp. 513-513)
    (pp. 514-520)
    (pp. 521-538)
  53. INDEX
    (pp. 539-551)
  54. Back Matter
    (pp. 552-553)