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Mechanics of Muscle

Daniel J. Schneck
Copyright Date: 1992
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 392
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  • Book Info
    Mechanics of Muscle
    Book Description:

    First published in 1985, the revised edition of this book consists of seven chapters describing the muscle, its anatomy, its mechanics, and its chemical and neuro-control systems. It documents empirical, analytical, and experimental analyses and equations describing the fundamental principles related to the different aspects of the muscular contraction. Presenting the mechanics of muscular contraction from the bioengineering and biochemical point of view, the text discusses the anatomical, physiological and engineering aspects of various topics and provides numerical examples and homework problems.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-8877-6
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  5. List of Symbols
    (pp. xvii-xxx)
  6. Foreword
    (pp. xxxi-xxxii)
    Walter Welkowitz

    TheNew York University Biomedical Engineeringseries is a series of books and monographs which will attempt to present a number of the more important contributions which engineering has recently made in the fields of medicine and biology. For many years the contributions of the physical sciences to medicine were primarily restricted to the field of radiology. However, with the explosive growth of engineering theory and technology in the last 40 years, the applications of engineering to medicine have become important in fields as diverse as cardiology, cardiac surgery, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedics, ophthalmology, urology, respiratory medicine, and indeed in general...

  7. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxvi)
    Daniel J. Schneck
  8. Chapter 1 Introduction, Anatomy and Physiology of Striated Skeletal Muscle … The Source of Human Power
    (pp. 1-50)

    The broad science dedicated to the study of movement, and to the active and passive structures involved, is calledkinesiology. This word is derived from the Greek, ʺkinesisʺ, meaning ʺmovementʺ, and ʺ-logiaʺ, pertaining to a complete body of knowledge. Kinesiology thus addresses such diverse subjects as:

    1) the scientific study of the mechanisms involved in transforming chemically-bound potential energy into mechanical energy, in a process known asExcitation-Contraction Coupling(see later in this chapter);

    2) the processes (biochemical, physiological and anatomical) by which motor skills are learned and developed, including mechanisms of adaptation, conditioning, and the general topic ofwork...

  9. Chapter 2 A Nonlinear, Elastic, Continuum Constitutive Model for Striated Skeletal Muscle
    (pp. 51-78)

    As an engineering material, muscles fall into the category of substances that exhibit time-dependent, nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. They areviscousin the sense that their behavior depends not only on theamountby which they are deformed, but also on therateat which they are deformed. Their behavior istime-dependentin the sense that the loading-response (stress-strain or stress-strain-rate) curves for this type of physiologic tissue all exhibithysteresis. That is, starting with the tissue at rest, if one subjects it to cyclic loading and unloading, one does not travel up (loading) and down (unloading) thesamestress-strain or...

  10. Chapter 3 A Linear, Viscoelastic, Phenomenological Constitutive Model for Striated Skeletal Muscle
    (pp. 79-130)

    Since muscle tissue consists of 75% water by weight, and much of what remains is Amorphous, long-chain polymer, composite material, it is not surprising to learn that it exhibits quite a bit of viscous behavior. In order to account for the time-dependence resulting from such behavior, the four-element viscoelastic model depicted in Figure 3-1 is one that has been proposed. In this model, the contractile elements (Actomyosin cross-bridge configuration) of the muscle are assumed to generate some force,P, (perhaps calculated from the nonlinear analysis of the previous chapter) and this force is considered to be modulated by the spring-dashpot...

  11. Chapter 4 A Nonlinear, Viscoelastic, Stochastic Structural Constitutive Model for Striated Skeletal Muscle
    (pp. 131-164)

    As was pointed out in Chapter 2, Nubarʹs nonlinear theory for muscular contraction accurately predicts such phenomena as passive ʺstrain hardeningʺ and active ʺcompensationʺ and ʺdecompensation;ʺ but, it does not include any time-dependent or viscous behavior. In terms of the events depicted in Figure 3-4, then, one could surmise that this nonlinear model would only be valid when the time-varying nature of the tissue loading is below 0.015 hertz (τε/Tω≤0(10-3)), or above 15 hertz (Tωε≤0(1)) -- i.e., where the tissue response characteristics are essentially ʺflatʺ with respect to time. Thus, depending on the relaxation time constant (which is on the...

  12. Chapter 5 Mechanics and Energetics of Muscular Contraction
    (pp. 165-196)

    The constitutive relationships developed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4, provide a theoretical basis for analyzing the ability of muscles to generate forces that eventually produce moments at human joints. This is important for understanding the capability that striated skeletal muscles have to maintain posture and balance, or to cause locomotion of parts or all of the animal body. Both of these functions are accomplished entirely by rotating (or preventing the rotation of) one part of the body relative to another. Indeed, whether one wishes to study gait (walking), athletic performance, various postural configurations, movement in sub-gravity conditions, activities of...

  13. Chapter 6 Control of Muscular Contraction
    (pp. 197-276)

    Throughout the first five chapters of this book, many factors that act to control muscular contraction have already been mentioned and discussed. To the extent that they address anatomic, physiologic, neural, physical, chemical or thermodynamic variables that constitute the very nature of the tissue, itself, these control factors may be classified asintrinsic. Listed in Table 6-I are almost sixty such intrinsic control factors, all of which have at least been touched upon (if not discussed at some length) earlier. While the list is certainly not exhaustive, and although the factors itemized may not be entirely independent of one another,...

  14. Chapter 7 Mathematical Modelling of Neuromuscular Control Systems
    (pp. 277-346)

    Striated skeletal muscles fall into the general category of devices called ʺtransducersʺ. These are elements of a system that transmit energy, but in so doing, convert that energy (i.e., ʺtransduceʺ it) from one form into another. The energy that enters the transducer is called itsinput. In the case of striated skeletal muscles, the input is electrochemical energy associated with the muscle fuel cell, which is activated by an action potential initiated by an alpha-motor-neuron. The energy that leaves the transducer is called itsoutput. In the case of striated skeletal muscles, the output is either the external work associated...

  15. Index
    (pp. 347-354)
  16. About The Author
    (pp. 355-356)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 357-357)