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Including the excluded

Including the excluded: From practice to policy in European community development

Paul Henderson
Copyright Date: 2005
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  • Book Info
    Including the excluded
    Book Description:

    This book provides an in-depth study of how community development can contribute to tackling social exclusion. Drawing on the outcomes of a project funded by the Social Inclusion Programme of the European Union and managed by a European network of community development organisations - the Combined European Bureau for Social Development - Including the excluded analyses the experiences of local communities; identifies and explains the key principles that need to underpin programmes and projects that use a community-based approach to tackling social exclusion and provides a summary of key action points that need to be considered by organisations and agencies. Examples from policy and practice in the UK, Spain, Belgium, Sweden and Norway are discussed, with additional information from Denmark, Ireland and Hungary. The principles and methods discussed give a valuable insight into how the voices of local people and practitioners can be heard in policy and decision making forums.

    eISBN: 978-1-84742-128-9
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. v-v)
    Gerard Hautekeur

    The continuing existence of political, economic and social barriers that prevent millions of people across Europe from participating fully in society is being challenged by a range of groups and organisations. The expansion of the European Union (EU) from 370 million to nearly 450 million people in May 2004 has required groups and organisations to redouble their efforts: most of the new citizens are significantly poorer than those from the former EU.

    The focus ofIncluding the excludedis on actions taken by community groups across Europe. It has been prepared and written on a collaborative basis by individuals who...

  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. vi-vi)
    Paul Henderson
  5. ONE Beginnings
    (pp. 1-8)

    The issue of language has a special irony for this publication: people’s experiences of poverty, exclusion, homelessness, unemployment and many other pressures on their lives are mostly stark and direct – not obscure. ‘Social exclusion’, ‘transparency’, ‘capacity building’, ‘indicators’ – what meaning do these and other terms have for most people? Community activists and other members of community groups and associations are increasingly frustrated by the jargon that is so dominant in policy documents and strategy papers: ‘officialese’, buzzwords, acronyms, abbreviations, overcomplicated sentences. The very people who are the victims of social exclusion are thus hindered from challenging it because of the...

  6. TWO The European context
    (pp. 9-26)

    European policy and practice take place in a dynamic and changing context. The development of key concepts regarding this context has to take the complexity of these social, political and economic changes into account. Further, Europe is not self-contained and free of the impact of wider global interactions and exchanges. Learning from wider international sources is especially important when discussing social exclusion and community development. Many individuals and organisations in the North have learned from approaches taken in the South to address and tackle poverty and related concerns: the use, for example, of participatory research and evaluation methods and inspiring...

  7. THREE Practice examples and key messages
    (pp. 27-54)

    In the following examples, the two arguments identified by the Combat Poverty Agency for adopting a community development approach to tackling poverty can be seen to be at work:

    The argument for community development, from a social inclusion perspective, is rooted in a broad understanding of citizenship that sees people as having a right to influence and participate in the decisions that affect them and to have their views and experiences listened to and acted on. Community development is potentially a means or process whereby people can achieve this right.

    The second argument is a pragmatic one, which emphasises efficiency...

  8. FOUR Shared principles
    (pp. 55-72)

    The aim of this publication is to identify key points about practice, principles and policy on community development and social exclusion that are shared within the European context. It would, however, be surprising, even strange, if there was always agreement. That would suggest superficiality. Not only are the situations very different across Europe but they also represent different and sometimes contrasting approaches to community development. Thus, while we are looking for what is held in common with regard to principles, we are also alert to differences that reflect the unique political, social and cultural experiences of communities across Europe. We...

  9. FIVE Common understandings
    (pp. 73-80)

    Throughout Europe there is a revival of community development, not only in those countries that have a long tradition in the field but also in countries such as Bulgaria, Romania and the Czech Republic. The political climate is favourable because governments, and increasing numbers of local authorities, are promoting interactive management in which citizens are involved in the early stages of decision making. A key question facing European, national, regional and local community development organisations, given the favourable climate, turns on the definition and meaning of community development being used: is there a common understanding of community development in the...

  10. SIX Agenda for action
    (pp. 81-92)

    As part of its centenary events, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, a major UK trust, invited Bruce Katz of the Brookings Institution in the US to give a paper entitledNeighbourhoods of choice and connection. The speaker reviewed American neighbourhood policy and suggested what this means for the UK’s social exclusion policies. He had some positive points to make about work at neighbourhood level, even suggesting that the ‘neighbourhood effects literature’ probably underestimates the economic and social assets of these communities: “Proximity to nodes of employment and key infrastructure, as well as the existence of such key institutions as community groups,...

  11. SEVEN Conclusions
    (pp. 93-110)

    The author of the publication from which this statement is taken goes on to argue for the importance also of uniting the Roma in national and international networks. A strategic decision to work at several different levels is of central importance in work undertaken to include the excluded through community development. The need for a multilevel strategy provides the overarching principle behind the following six key themes or priorities that can be drawn out of the preceding chapters. In most, if not all, instances the phrase ‘unfinished business’ needs to be inserted alongside each theme. We have drawn attention to...

  12. References
    (pp. 111-114)
  13. APPENDIX A: The Budapest Declaration
    (pp. 115-122)
  14. APPENDIX B: Combined European Bureau for Social Development
    (pp. 123-128)
  15. Index
    (pp. 129-136)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 137-138)