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Social Policy Review 19

Social Policy Review 19: Analysis and debate in social policy, 2007

Karen Clarke
Tony Maltby
Patricia Kennett
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  • Book Info
    Social Policy Review 19
    Book Description:

    Social Policy Review provides students, academics and all those interested in welfare issues with critical analyses of progress and change in areas of major interest during the past year. Contributions reflect key themes in the UK and internationally. The first part of the collection focuses on developments and change in core UK social policy areas. Part two provides in-depth analyses of topical issues from both UK and international perspectives, while this year's themed section examines 'Migration and social policy'.

    eISBN: 978-1-84742-245-3
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. List of tables and figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  2. Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)
    Karen Clarke, Tony Maltby and Patricia Kennett

    As in previous years, this volume ofSocial Policy Reviewis organised into three sections. Part One reviews developments in key areas of social policy during 2006: education, health, housing, adult social care, children’s services and social security. The introduction of a chapter on children’s services for the first time this year reflects the substantial transformation that has taken place in recent years in the organisation of social services. The emphasis on partnership working has resulted in the reappearance of services organised around the characteristics of particular client groups, replacing the Seebohm vision in which local authority social services departments...

  3. Part One: Current services

    • ONE ‘Going further?’ Tony Blair and New Labour education policies
      (pp. 13-32)
      Stephen J. Ball

      Any account of education policy in 2006 has to be dominated by the content and process of the 2006 Education and Inspections Act. Within the Act almost all of the key themes of the New Labour public sector reform project are played out in and through education policy, building on, extending and reworking previous policies and previous legislation. The Act was also a significant moment in the history of Tony Blair.

      In the run-up to the 1997 General Election Tony Blair (1996) announced ‘education, education, education’ as his key priority. In 2006 education policy may have played a not insignificant...

    • TWO One, or four? The National Health Service in 2006
      (pp. 33-48)
      Stephen Peckham

      Since the early part of the 20th century there has been a continuing debate in the UK about the nature of a national health service. The establishment of the NHS in 1948 did little to end this debate that has continued over the past 60 years. The NHS was itself a compromise of interests – both political and medical – and discussion has repeatedly returned to whether the NHS should be a local or centralised service, what relationship it should have with local government, whether doctors, managers or politicians should run the service, whether it is affordable as a tax-funded service and...

    • THREE Housing policy, housing tenure and the housing market
      (pp. 49-66)
      Alan Murie

      Sixty years on from the end of the Second World War and the establishment of the post-war welfare state, more than 25 years on from the election of Margaret Thatcher’s government and changes that reduced the size and role of public sector housing, and almost 10 years on from the election of a new Labour government, housing policy in Britain has home ownership at its heart. At the same time asset ownership is a more central element in the government’s whole approach to public policy. Policy actions taken in 2006 confirm this direction and the importance of housing in the...

    • FOUR Modernising services, empowering users? Adult social care in 2006
      (pp. 67-84)
      Kirstein Rummery

      The implementation in 1993 of the 1990 National Health Service (NHS) and Community Care Act was one of the most fundamental upheavals social services in the UK had ever experienced, introducing splits between the purchasing and direct provision of care services for adults, and implementing a ‘quasi-market’ in social care (Le Grand and Bartlett, 1993; Lewis and Glennerster, 1996). These reforms aimed to control public expenditure, facilitate joint working between health and social care and empower service users. This legacy remains a powerful driver in social services: policies designed and implemented by the New Labour government since 1997 have never...

    • FIVE Children’s services in 2006
      (pp. 85-106)
      Harriet Churchill

      This chapter examines the rapidly unfolding story of children’s services reform in the UK in 2006. Those working in children’s services are responding to multiple drivers of change inhabiting a fast-moving policy landscape. Major reorganisation is under way in response to the 2004 Children Act, which implemented the structural reforms put forward in theEvery Child MattersGreen Paper (DfES, 2003). The 2004 Children Act seeks comprehensive reform across the range of services for children aged 0–19 years and their families and has been described as constituting “the most radical transformation [of children’s services] since the 1948 Children Act”...

    • SIX Laying new foundations? Social security reform in 2006
      (pp. 107-124)
      Stephen McKay

      In 2006 significant policy reforms were developed in the areas of child support, pensions, and more generally for recipients of out-of-work benefits. In each case the government set out agendas for reform that would have major long-term consequences, although with little happening immediately. To what extent, therefore, has New Labour been laying down new foundations for social security in the future? How far do the reforms imply a break with the past, and in what ways do they represent a continuation of key New Labour themes?

      In this review we focus on the three main areas of reform, after setting...

  4. Part Two: Current issues

    • SEVEN “I can’t ask that!”: promoting discussion of sexuality and effective health service interactions with older non-heterosexual men
      (pp. 127-150)
      Adrian Lee

      This chapter aims to enhance the understanding of social policy academics and practitioners with regard to the homosexuality of older men, with whom they may interact on a professional basis or write about through their research, without actively and consciously considering how sexuality can substantially influence aspects of daily living. In order to fulfil this aim, I first outline research to date on the size of the older gay male population in order to argue that this is significant enough to warrant more wholehearted interest from policy makers and service providers. Then, the discourse of sexual citizenship is discussed as...

    • EIGHT Dealing with money in low- to moderate-income couples: insights from individual interviews
      (pp. 151-174)
      Sirin Sung and Fran Bennett

      As Cantillon et al (2004) argue, what happens within households is often neglected. The family is a key site of distribution – of money, time and labour (see, for example, Lister, 2005), as well as other resources – but is often a ‘black box’, which is not investigated and in which equality is assumed. The qualitative study drawn on in this chapter is one element of a research project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as part of the Gender Equality Network that tries to help open up this ‘black box’¹. The research aims to find out more about...

    • NINE Power and autonomy of older people in long-term care: cross-national comparison and learning
      (pp. 175-200)
      Henglien (Lisa) Chen

      The current trend in many European countries is shifting caring responsibilities towards the individual and promoting independence among older people. In this chapter it is argued that older people who need long-term care are most likely to be physically/mentally frail and they are more likely to be involved with multiple care actors. It for this reason that the power and autonomy of dependent older people is essential to ensure their quality of care is maintained. However, it also means that securing the autonomy of dependent older people within the complexities of the long-term care system remains a challenge. This chapter...

    • TEN Structural stigma, institutional trust and the risk agenda in mental health policy
      (pp. 201-220)
      Joanne Warner

      This chapter begins with a brief analysis of the ‘changing work paradigm’ in globalised economies and the evidence for the impact of this on mental health outcomes, particularly in terms of those who are or may become ‘precariously distressed’ (Rogers and Pilgrim, 2003). This is followed by an account of structural stigma within mainstream mental health policies and the way in which they continue to reflect a risk agenda. The chapter then identifies the relationship between networks of risk in mental health and the networks of trust that have been negotiated between major constituencies, particularly between the state and relatives...

    • ELEVEN Rising or falling to the challenges of diversity in Europe? Social justice and differentiated citizenship
      (pp. 221-240)
      Eithne McLaughlin and Gerry Boucher

      InWasted lives, Bauman (2004a, p 7) argues that a consequence of late modernity is that “the problems of human waste and human waste disposal weigh ever more heavily on the liquid modern consumerist culture of individualisation”. This results in the absence of outlets for ‘safe disposal’ of surplus and redundant populations, including ‘unwanted’ immigrants, and specifically asylum seekers, who are not specifically ‘invited’ by national immigration policies. It also includes minority ethnic groups who do not sufficiently assimilate their cultural differences into harmlessness, or preferably out of existence, leaving intact the idealised homogeneous national culture. This problem of ‘human...

  5. Part Three Migration and social policy

    • TWELVE Enlarging concerns: migration to the UK from new European Union member states
      (pp. 243-264)
      Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah

      In the UK, as in many other European Union (EU) member states, discussions about the merits of EU enlargement have been dominated by concerns about the scale and impacts of migration from new member states to older ones. Relatively little is said about the economic and political advantages that EU enlargement can bring to existing and new member states. In contrast, public debates on enlargement seem to be dominated, almost fixated, by fears about immigrants from new member states and the impacts they will have on UK labour markets, public services, welfare provision and crime.

      In the lead up to...

    • THIRTEEN Gendered immigrations, policies and rights in the UK
      (pp. 265-292)
      Eleonore Kofman

      In the past decade, immigration and net migration into the UK have increased substantially. At the same time it has become more diversified, not only in terms of countries of origin but also the different forms of entry, statuses and rights conferred by the state. There are also large variations in the proportion of female nationals among the many nationalities present in the UK, with an average of 48.6% in 2006 (Salt, 2006), rising to over 60% for the Philippines and a number of European states, but falling to below 40% for those from Bangladesh and Iran. In the most...

    • FOURTEEN Migration, older people and social policy
      (pp. 293-316)
      Anthony M. Warnes

      This chapter focuses on the challenges that older migrants present to established principles and systems of social welfare. It features the elaboration of policies for the welfare of foreign migrants since the mid-20th century in Europe, and more specifically the UK. The particular focus is on the circumstances of older people. Migration policy (or more precisely immigration policy) is very often seen as separate from social policy, while several important welfare measures, particularly those founded on social insurance and ‘intergenerational solidarity’ principles, implicitly presume a ‘closed’ or isolated national population and are confused by arrivals and departures. The disjunction creates...

    • FIFTEEN Managing multiple life courses: the influence of children on migration processes in the European Union
      (pp. 317-338)
      Louise Ackers and Helen Stalford

      Traditional approaches to migration theorising, particularly in a European context, have tended to focus rather narrowly on a limited number of economic determinants and, in particular, the effect of wage differentials in shaping migration and location decisions. The emphasis onthe migration decisionhas also tended to characterise migration as a onetime event, perhaps followed by a return move. In recent years, research has drawn attention to the role that a much wider range of factors play in shaping what are now conceptualised more accurately as migration processes or, in a European context ‘mobilities’. This might include a more holistic...