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Regenerating deprived urban areas

Regenerating deprived urban areas: A cross national analysis of area-based initiatives

Rene Peter Hohmann
Copyright Date: 2013
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  • Book Info
    Regenerating deprived urban areas
    Book Description:

    In the face of continuing challenges of urban decline, an increasing local policy activism can be observed in a number of European countries. The implementation of area-based initiatives (ABIs) for deprived urban areas, such as the ‘New Deal for Communities’ in England and the ‘Social City Programme’ in Germany, is an example of these New Localism(s). ABIs can be seen as test-beds for new forms of urban governance seeking to foster an active participation of residents and the voluntary sector. Based upon comparative research in two cities, Bristol in England and Duisburg in Germany, this book is the first to cross-nationally compare the impacts of ABIs in two deprived urban areas in England and Germany. It evaluates the impacts of these New Localism(s) on organisations and development actors at the neighbourhood level. Using a rich data-set and applying a hands-on methodology it uses a mixed method approach to help the reader with a wider spectrum of illustrations and is aimed at those studying and working in the field of urban regeneration and planning.

    eISBN: 978-1-4473-1079-2
    Subjects: Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vii)
  3. List of figures, tables, boxes and appendices
    (pp. viii-ix)
  4. List of abbreviations
    (pp. x-x)
  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-6)

    In the face of continuing problems of urban decline, challenges to financing local services in times of austerity and reform pressures to foster new forms of local development partnerships, an increasing local policy activism can be observed in a number of European countries since the mid-1990s. These New Localism(s) embrace new ways in which the delivery of public services is managed. The outsourcing of management and delivery functions to non-state actors, such as Voluntary Sector Organisations (VSOs) and intermediaries, has become an integral component. These reform processes are also being reflected in the shift in urban policies.

    The formulation and...

  7. TWO New Localism(s) in Europe: restructuring local state spaces and public-service delivery in England and Germany
    (pp. 7-22)

    With countervailing trends towards a global economy, an increasing local policy activism can be observed in a number of European countries since the mid-1990s (Clarke, S.E., 1993; Clarke, N., 2009). Contemporary research into these trends has noted not only an increasing tendency to identify socio-economic challenges and solutions at the local level, but also an interrelated restructuring of local state spaces in which relationships between central and local government tiers, as well as between the local state and non-state actors, are transformed. The financing of, and responsibility for, public-service planning and delivery at the local level can be seen as...

  8. THREE National urban policies for deprived urban areas: the birth of Area-Based Initiatives
    (pp. 23-40)

    Creating partnerships to respond to economic decline in cities has become a popular way of implementing urban policies¹ across Europe and has emerged ‘as one of the homogenising concepts within the EU, supporting the notion of European integration by emphasising the possibilities for collaboration between a number of different stakeholders with potentially competing or conflicting interests’ (Benington and Geddes, 2001: 2). The dialogue between governments to implement the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) adopted in 1999 has led to an increased cross-national policy mobility of approaches and experiences. A number of policy circuits through which ‘policy knowledge and policy models...

  9. FOUR Exploring the impacts of Area-Based Initiatives through a neo-institutionalist perspective
    (pp. 41-54)

    The aim of this chapter is to suggest a theoretical framework for empirical analysis that allows us to explore and identify factors influencing the diversity of impacts deriving from the implementation of Area-Based Initiatives (ABIs). It is argued that a comparative study of the impacts of the New Localism(s) and ABIs can benefit considerably from neo-institutionalist approaches that are sensitive to formal as well as informal local institutional forces and pressures in these transformative processes.

    Drawing upon neo-institutional approaches from organisational theory, this approach focuses on the creation and institutionalisation of implementation partnerships, the rules for participation, and new neighbourhood...

  10. FIVE Lost in transformation: urban governance practices and the New Deal for Communities in Bristol
    (pp. 55-86)

    These words of a development manager of the South West Regional Development Agency (SWRDA) marked the opening of the third phase of a£750 million inner-city development project aimed at transforming parts of Bristol’s city centre into a thriving office district. Indeed, considering Bristol’s population dynamic and economic history, these ambitions seem to correspond with the economic legacies that have emerged in Bristol over a long time. With a population of 416,400 people, Bristol is the largest city in the South West and one of the eight ‘core’ cities in England outside London (BCC, 2009c). Due to its growing service...

  11. SIX Local-government experiments to cope with structural change: the Social City Programme in Duisburg
    (pp. 87-120)

    Strukturwandel’, the change of economic and social structures, has become a highly used buzzword in research and local politics to describe Duisburg’s socio-economic transition during the last century. Located at the fringe of Germany’s Rhine–Ruhr Agglomeration (Ruhrgebiet), Duisburg’s economy is highly intertwined with the boom and bust of the mining, iron and steel industry (Hall, P., 1966).¹

    It was the construction of the Lower Rhine steel foundry in Duisburg North – which became Europe’s biggest steel-production site – that transformed Duisburg to the main city of the steel industry in Germany (Birkenhauer, 1984). The demands of this sector and...

  12. SEVEN The crystallisation of New Localism(s) in Bristol and Duisburg: a cross-case comparison
    (pp. 121-134)

    Having reviewed and analysed the forms of institutional change deriving from the implementation of two Area-Based Initiatives (ABIs) in Bristol (England) and Duisburg (Germany), and having embedded these experiences in the overall socio-economic and political transformation of both cities, this chapter further pursues a distinct comparison. The following sections are therefore dedicated to compiling and contrasting evidence about the role of both ABIs in the overall reform of local public-service delivery and the way in which these policy initiatives have created and transformed institutional capacities.

    The New Localism(s) observable in different localities in England and Germany are crystallised in recent...

  13. EIGHT The neo-institutional study of New Localism(s) as an analytical window for comparative urbanism: concluding reflections
    (pp. 135-146)

    The overall aim of this study was to assess the impacts of Area-Based Initiatives (ABIs) on local-development strategies and processes for deprived areas in Bristol in England and Duisburg in Germany. The evidence presented in the previous chapters suggests that the local council in Duisburg and the intermediary organisation in Bristol primarily benefited from the implementation process of ABIs. In both cases, only those activities deriving from these initiatives that did not bind, in particular, regular service providers to any formal rules have been mainstreamed. Overall, it has become clear that the more projects are detached from the planning rationales...

    (pp. 147-172)
  15. References
    (pp. 173-214)
  16. Index
    (pp. 215-225)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 226-226)