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Social Policy Review 21

Social Policy Review 21: Analysis and debate in social policy, 2009

Kirstein Rummery
Ian Greener
Chris Holden
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  • Book Info
    Social Policy Review 21
    Book Description:

    Social Policy Review provides students, academics and all those interested in welfare issues with critical analyses of progress and change in areas of major interest during the past year. This year the Review takes the opportunity of the 60th anniversary of the key legislation founding the welfare state in the UK to provide a comprehensive overview of policy developments in the UK and internationally. The first part brings together a selection of papers which have been commissioned to examine historical and contemporary developments in policy tackling Beveridge's five evils of want, idleness, disease, squalor and ignorance, looking at how policy has changed since the aims and ideology of the inception of the post-war welfare state. The second part looks at the issue of the current challenges facing children's welfare services internationally: always a contemporary and contentious issue. The final part brings together a selection of papers looking at the effect of policy development at various governance levels on social policy. The contributions bring together an exciting mix of internationally renowned authors to provide comprehensive discussion of the some of the most challenging issues facing social policy today.

    eISBN: 978-1-84742-741-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. List of tables and figures
    (pp. v-vii)
  2. Overview
    (pp. 1-8)

    In this year’sSocial Policy Review(SPR) we are pleased to be able to both keep to, and break with, tradition, in the time-honoured fashion that makes social policy as a discipline robust and challenging. We have kept our three-part structure, focusing on developments in the welfare state, a selection of papers commissioned from the Social Policy Association (SPA) annual conference, and a final section on the theme chosen by the editorial team – this year our theme is the issue of the rescaling of social policy and the governance challenges that presents to the welfare state. However, we have...

  3. Part One: Tackling Beveridge’s ‘five evils’, 60 years on

    • ONE Freedom from want: 60 years on
      (pp. 11-28)
      Michael Hill

      The social security settlement of the 1940s, implemented in 1948, appeared to have the prevention of want as its central focus, inasmuch as its inspiration came from the Beveridge Report (1942). In addressing the issues about freedom from want, this chapter could try to deal with the extent to which poverty was effectively prevented then and now. At the end of this chapter some observations will be included on that, but the achievement of a satisfactory comparison would be very difficult. Moreover, I write as a student of policies rather than as a student of poverty. Beveridge’s rhetorical use of...

    • TWO Slaying idleness without killing care: a challenge for the British welfare state
      (pp. 29-48)
      Hilary Land

      The importance that William Beveridge attached to the maintenance of full employment is not surprising. Unemployment had been a major focus of his work both as an academic economist and as a policy adviser since the beginning of the 20th century (see, for example, Beveridge, 1909). The labour exchanges together with unemployment insurance, which, along with other economists, he advocated to facilitate the matching of jobs with those seeking employment, were introduced before the First World War. He was heavily involved in the work of the Unemployment Assistance Board in the 1930s and was all too aware of the problems...

    • THREE Tackling ignorance, promoting social mobility: education policy 1948 and 2008
      (pp. 49-66)
      Ruth Lupton and Howard Glennerster

      In this chapter, we reflect on education policy in 2008 in the light of the events and debates of 1948. We concentrate on events in England, although contrasts with the devolved policies of other parts of the UK also feature in our analysis.

      1948 was a quiet year in the war on ignorance, with Butler’s Education Act already four years old. Moreover, rather than embodying a clear set of post-war ‘ideals’, education policy reflected an uneasy post-war settlement hammered out after bitter pre-war divisions between church and non-church schooling and other unsettled arguments.

      Some things were clear. A public opinion...

    • FOUR Beveridge’s giant of disease: from negative to positive welfare?
      (pp. 67-86)
      Martin Powell

      The 60th anniversary of the National Health Service (NHS) gives an appropriate time to reflect on progress in conquering Beveridge’s (1942) giant of disease. After Bevan, Beveridge is often regarded as a parent of the NHS (coming sixth in theHealth Service Journal’s ‘Diamond’ list of the most important people in the 60 years of the NHS;Health Service Journal, 30 June 2008). However, Beveridge’s role in creating the NHS was limited. As Scrivens (1991, p 27) points out, although a comprehensive health service was a central feature of the post-war reconstruction programme, Beveridge made little reference to its specification....

    • FIVE Tackling squalor? Housing’s contribution to the welfare state
      (pp. 87-108)
      Douglas Robertson and James Smyth

      This chapter offers a long-term perspective on the role played by council housing in tackling the ‘social evil’ of squalor within Scotland. By the mid-1970s, public sector housing – encompassing council, new town and Scottish Special Housing Association property – accommodated fully two thirds of the Scottish population (Gibb, 1989). The proportion of the population housed by the public sector in England, by contrast, was markedly less at just one third (Ravetz, 2001). So public housing in Scotland was on a markedly different scale, with a state housing sector comparable to many countries in the-then ‘Eastern Bloc’. Scotland consequently provides...

    • SIX The Poor Law Commission of 1905–09: a view from a century on
      (pp. 109-130)
      John Offer

      On 1 January 1908, the total number of persons in receipt of some form of poor relief in England and Wales was 928,671: ‘one out of every 44 persons was a pauper’ (Poor Law Commission, 1909a, vol 1, p 31). Behind the figures, within a framework amended in 1834 yet retaining local variations in policy, was a world of interaction yielding decisions about the quality of life for the most vulnerable in society. The Royal Commission on the Poor Laws of the time still signifies as a landmark in social policy with its celebrated division over future policy, where Fabian...

  4. Part Two: Contemporary childcare policy

    • SEVEN Intercountry adoption in Europe 1998–2007: patterns, trends and issues
      (pp. 133-166)
      Peter Selman

      Critics have raised many doubts about the movement of children for intercountry adoption, asking whether it is a ‘global trade or global gift?’ (Triseliotis, 2000), ‘a global problem or a global solution?’ (Masson, 2001). In this chapter I want to explore this question in Europe, which shares with America the pattern of being a continent with major movements of children between countries – in America from South to North; in Europe from East to West. However, Europe is of particular interest in the context of the enlarged European Union (EU), which contains both receiving states and states of origin.¹ I...

    • EIGHT Family income as a protective factor for child outcomes
      (pp. 167-196)
      Ilan Katz and Gerry Redmond

      It is well established in the child development literature that children from materially deprived backgrounds have poorer outcomes than those from wealthy families (Hoff et al, 2002; Centre for Community Child Health Royal Children’s Hospital, 2004; Richardson and Prior, 2005). There is now a significant body of literature on the relationships between indicators of material and social well-being on the one hand, and child outcomes on the other (Bor et al, 1997). The majority of studies compare families who are defined as poor with non-poor families (see, for example, Fergusson et al, 1994), or alternatively measure the average association between...

    • NINE Managing shared residence in Britain and France: questioning a default ‘primary carer’ model
      (pp. 197-214)
      Alexander Masardo

      The past 40 years have seen major shifts in the demographic constitution of families and households, in particular with regard to aspects of their formation and dissolution. A growing diversity in family forms has meant that increasing numbers of children are growing up in households that do not include both biological parents. Much of the research and policy interest surrounding these changes has focused on the growth in lone motherhood, where the ratio of lone mothers to lone fathers has remained remarkably consistent over many years, at roughly nine to one (Duncan and Edwards, 1999). As a result, in as...

    • TEN Strategic challenges in child welfare services: a comparative study of Australia, England and Sweden
      (pp. 215-242)
      Gabrielle Meagher, Natasha Cortis and Karen Healy

      Comparative welfare research now acknowledges that social services, as well as social security systems, define welfare states (Bambra, 2005; Jensen, 2008). In the child welfare field, cross-national studies offer critical insight into the goals, priorities and logic of welfare systems; differences in institutional structures and boundaries; and differences in the roles and characteristics of professionals, managers and service users in contemporary welfare states (Hearn et al, 2004; Hetherington, 2005). Interview methodologies enrich these approaches, linking stakeholder preoccupations and perspectives to cross-national analyses of system priorities and design (Hetherington, 2005).

      This chapter draws on interview data from three study countries to...

  5. Part Three: Rescaling social policy

    • ELEVEN Governance at a distance? The turn to the local in UK social policy
      (pp. 245-266)
      Andrew Wallace

      It has been noted that the concept of governance has been both underused as a tool of analysis and underresearched as a set of practices by social policy scholars (Daly, 2003). In response, this chapter will argue that governance can provide a useful framework for understanding recent shifts in the organisation and delivery of welfare in the UK. ‘Governance’ is a nuanced process open to various interpretations and enactments (Davies, 2005) and in this chapter the focus is on its contribution to the rescaling of social policy through processes of spatialisation and localisation, which increasingly structure welfare activities around the...

    • TWELVE Spatial rescaling, devolution and the future of social welfare
      (pp. 267-282)
      Michael Keating

      The European welfare state has rested since its inception on an explicit or implicit model of the bounded nation-state. Common nationality underpins social solidarity and provides a rationale for redistribution. State boundaries lock in actors, notably capital and labour, bind their fate together, and encourage them to engage in social dialogue. Similarly, rich and poor regions are bound together, and inter-territorial redistribution is part of a national circulation of wealth, which benefits all. A strong and centralised state can mobilise resources for welfare programmes and redistribute both among individuals and across territories. These features are being transformed in the process...

    • THIRTEEN Rescaling emergent social policies in South East Europe
      (pp. 283-306)
      Paul Stubbs and Siniša Zrinščak

      It is far from clear where South East Europe begins and ends. It is as much, if not more, a geopolitical construct as it is an identifiable geographical space. It may best be conceived as an emergent subregional space, more ascribed by outside forces rather than celebrated as a region from within. These ascriptions are, themselves, contradictory and somewhat Janus-faced, with a rather pejorative construction of the Balkans, only slightly amended in the European Union’s (EU) notion of the Western Balkans (former Yugoslavia minus EU member state Slovenia and plus Albania), standing in some tension with an idea that the...