The future of planning

The future of planning: Beyond growth dependence

Yvonne Rydin
Copyright Date: 2013
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qgwg6
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  • Book Info
    The future of planning
    Book Description:

    For the past half-century, the planning system has operated on the basis of a growth-dependence paradigm. It has been based on market-led urban development and has sought to provide community benefits from a share of development profits. However, we do not live in a world where growth can be taken for granted and we are more aware than previously of the implications for well-being and sustainability. This timely book provides a fresh analysis of the limitations of the growth-dependence planning paradigm. It considers alternative urban development models, ways of protecting and enhancing existing low value land uses and means of managing community assets within the built environment. In each case it spells out the role that a reformed planning system could play in establishing a new agenda for planning. The book will be of relevance to planning students, planning professionals and planning academics, as well as urban policy specialists more generally.

    eISBN: 978-1-4473-0842-3
    Subjects: Population Studies, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. List of figures, tables and boxes
    (pp. v-vi)
  4. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Yvonne Rydin
  5. ONE Introducing growth-dependent planning
    (pp. 1-12)

    Five years ago the town centre of Anywheretown could only be described as run-down. There were boarded-up shop fronts in the high street and charity shops abounded. In the small 1970s shopping mall, the wind whistled through the bleak empty space collecting litter around the benches and the concrete planters. People complained of the lack of shopping opportunities and the need to travel to the nearest city for most of the big multiples like Marks & Spencer or Top Shop. A number of unemployed young people hung around, some drinking. There were some light industry and distribution companies in the estates...

  6. TWO Embedding growth dependence in the planning system
    (pp. 13-34)

    The last chapter introduced the paradigm of growth-dependent planning in outline form and argued that the rise of governance had enabled this paradigm to become embedded in the planning system. This chapter explores this embedding process in more detail, looking briefly at the history of planning over the past four decades and considering key aspects of the contemporary institutions of planning. In setting up the discussion of how growth dependence became and remains embedded in the institutions of the planning system, it is helpful to clarify a little further what growth-dependent planning is and what it is not.

    Planning debates...

  7. THREE The growth-dependent planning paradigm
    (pp. 35-52)

    The aim of this book is to challenge the dominance of the paradigm of growth-dependent planning and suggest, not necessarily a replacement, but an alternative approach that may be more appropriate in certain localities and at certain times. But before this alternative is mapped out, we need to understand the current paradigm and its limitations more fully. This chapter explores the paradigm of growth-dependent planning. The subsequent two chapters then derive a critique looking, first, in Chapter 4 at the important underlying economic assumptions of the paradigm and, then, in Chapter 5 at the social and environmental consequences of relying...

  8. FOUR The flawed economic assumptions of growth-dependent planning
    (pp. 53-70)

    The previous chapter set out the key assumptions and elements of the growth-dependent model of planning. This has made it clear that growth-dependent planning has two requirements if it is to be effective. First, it needs regulatory control to deliver social and environmental benefits from market-led development. Second, it assumes economic growth to drive such market-led development. Chapter 2 has already shown that ideological and political shifts often result in regulation within the planning system being relaxed to the point where growth-dependent planning cannot be fully effective in delivering widely spread benefits. But this is often a governmental response to...

  9. FIVE The environmental and social consequences of growth-dependent planning
    (pp. 71-94)

    This chapter provides a different critique of growth-dependent planning to that provided in the last chapter. It looks to the consequences of pursuing this approach in terms of environmental sustainability and social impacts. It begins by setting out and then critiquing the argument that promoting new development can be a pathway to greener growth. Following this, the chapter then considers the way that growth-dependent planning operates through achieving uplift in land values, and discusses the consequences for urban areas and local communities. In doing so it sets this in the context of existing inequalities within urban areas as both a...

  10. SIX Reforming the planning agenda
    (pp. 95-114)

    The previous chapters have outlined the paradigm of growth-dependent planning, indicated how it has become embedded in the British planning system, explored the underlying economic model and laid out a critique in terms of both the underpinning economic assumptions and the social and environmental impact of pursuing such an approach. This and the following chapters set out a response to this analysis, suggesting an alternative approach that could sit alongside growth-dependent planning within a re-balanced planning system.

    The argument is that in some local contexts growth-dependent planning may still be the most appropriate paradigm to adopt if local economic conditions...

  11. SEVEN Alternative development models
    (pp. 115-142)

    In this chapter the focus is on alternative models of urban development to the growth-dependent approach, having particular regard to how diverse social needs can be met through such development, including the needs of lower-income households and the provision of affordable housing for such households. The term ‘affordable’ here is not used in any technical sense or limited by current policy terminology; it is just used to emphasise the importance of providing housing that lower-income households are able to afford. While this chapter begins with such considerations of affordability in relation to housing, the development models considered also provide the...

  12. EIGHT Protecting and improving existing places
    (pp. 143-168)

    It is the essence of the growth-dependent approach to planning that it considers increases in the prices of land and buildings to be an indicator of success in planning a locality. Yet there are all sorts of buildings, spaces and places that are important to towns and cities and that contribute to the liveability of urban areas and yet have a relatively low economic value. Indeed, because of their lower economic value, they have a particularly important role to play in the lives of lower-income households and can contribute to the sustainability of places in a variety of ways. This...

  13. NINE Assets in common
    (pp. 169-186)

    This chapter looks at assets that are used in common by local communities. These include open spaces used for leisure and/or contributing to the amenity of an area. They also include buildings that can host a variety of activities that meet a community’s needs. These common assets can be important sources of support to communities, providing them with resources and benefits that they cannot otherwise find, either within their own homes or outside. If a family does not have a garden, then the local park is vital as somewhere to take the children to play. If membership of the private...

  14. TEN Reforming the planning system
    (pp. 187-202)

    There is a wealth of literature on planning that has identified weaknesses, limitations and areas for reform. The critical nature of planning research ensures this. The inability of the system to deal with social inequality and environmental injustice has been repeatedly commented on, and this book is another contribution to this ongoing debate. However, the last three chapters have pointed to a wide range of initiatives that are already happening and that suggest a different way forward, as well as avenues for further reform. Together they may constitute a more resilient form of planning in situations of economic downturn and...

  15. Notes
    (pp. 203-212)
  16. References
    (pp. 213-224)
  17. Index
    (pp. 225-232)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 233-233)