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Research Report

Silent Hunger: Policy options for effective responses to the impact of HIV and AIDS on Agriculture and Security in the SADC Region

Lindiwe Majele Sibanda
Fred Kalibwani
Tendayi Kureya
Edited by Sara Page
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2006
Pages: 144

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. viii-viii)
    (pp. ix-ix)
    (pp. x-xii)
    Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, Fred Kalibwani and Tendayi Kureya

    Arguably, the most critical challenge facing Southern Africa today is how to arrest poverty and food insecurity. There is widespread agreement that agricultural growth is the main strategy for tackling poverty and food insecurity in southern Africa. Yet, agricultural growth requires the development of a more diversified and commercialised structure for income generation among smallholder and subsistence farmers. However, agricultural growth and food security in the region are directly affected by the impact of the HIV epidemic. Any successful agricultural growth and diversification programmes have to adopt comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate initiatives to address the impact of HIV...

    (pp. xiii-xiii)
  8. SECTION ONE Setting the scene
    (pp. 1-17)

    The HIV and AIDS epidemic is one of the greatest challenges facing the southern African region. With 24.7 million people living with HIV and AIDS, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has 63 % of the world’s adults and children living with HIV A disproportionate number (59%) of all those living with HIV in SSA are women and girls. UNAIDS (2006) estimated that in 2006, 2.8 million Africans became infected, and in spite of increased access to antiretroviral drugs in many countries, it is reported that 2.1 million people have died of AIDS related illnesses.

    Early responses to the epidemic were limited due...

  9. SECTION TWO Exploring the link between food security, agriculture, HIV and AIDS
    (pp. 19-41)

    This section presents the conceptual framework and research methodology used by FANRPAN to explore the impact of HIV and AIDS on agriculture and food security in the SADC region. It is important to note that the study is based on the understanding that agriculture is only one part of a complex and inter-related sectoral relationship. Any successful attempt to address the impact of HIV and AIDS on agriculture and food security needs to explore the factors upon which an individual’s livelihood is based. The results of the study are presented in Section 3.

    As part of the same study, FANRPAN...

  10. SECTION THREE Evidence of Impact from rural communities in southern Africa
    (pp. 43-79)

    Between 2003 and 2005, national research teams used a standardised questionnaire to collect data from seven SADC countries: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Using preliminary and advanced analysis techniques, researchers explored the effects of the epidemic on assets in the human, financial, physical, social and natural dimensions, and how these affect agriculture, food security and nutrition security.

    Results from this research demonstrate that HIV and AIDS increase the vulnerability of households to food insecurity because they affect the core factors of production such as labour, financial resources and investments. Once a household member falls sick, this...

  11. SECTION FOUR Quantifying Vulnerability: The Household Vulnerability Index (HVI)
    (pp. 81-91)

    One of the key outcomes of the regional study was to develop and test a statistical index that attempts to quantify the vulnerability introduced into different households by HIV and AIDS. The Household Vulnerability Index (HVI) was tested in two countries: Lesotho and South Africa. The results provide a baseline on how the index can be used to quantify the different degrees of vulnerability experienced by households. The HVI presented in this section proposes a basis for further research on a common yard-stick for measuring household vulnerability.

    Vulnerability is conceptualised as the presence of factors that place households at risk...

  12. SECTION FIVE Advocating for Policy Change
    (pp. 93-105)

    The impact of HIV and AIDS has been as devastating as the impact of drought or famine on agriculture and food security, although it has not been immediately visible or quantifiable. In previous chapters, FANRPAN has presented the results of the seven-country study, which attempted to quantify the impact of HIV and AIDS on several dimensions of household livelihoods. In this section, the conclusions of the study are presented and key policy recommendations for the region and specific countries discussed. In addition, recommendations for future research are presented.

    Quantifying vulnerability - Throughout the SADC region, HIV has introduced new levels...

  13. SECTION SIX ‘Vulnerable yet Viable’: Social Protection Policies for Households Affected by HIV and AIDS
    (pp. 107-117)

    The previous sections highlighted the findings of a study commissioned by the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) on the impact of HIV and AIDS on agriculture and food security in the seven most affected counties in the region - Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The sections examined the aggregated impact on household agricultural labour supply, economics as well as food availability, access and utilisation. The study tracked, among many variables, household dependency ratios, productivity, consumption patterns, asset-base, and gender dynamics. A key conclusion was that while the epidemic is having an 'invisible'...

  14. Index
    (pp. 119-122)
  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 124-127)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 128-128)