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Research Report

The work of the Anjuman Samaji Behbood and the larger Faisalabad context, Pakistan

Salim Alimuddin
Arif Hasan
Asiya Sadiq
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2001
Pages: 99
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-3)
    Salim Alimuddin, Arif Hasan and Asiya Sadiq

    FAISALABAD WAS ESTABLISHED between 1895 and 1905 as a mandi or market town. Before its establishment the area was the flood plains of the river Chenab, a tributary of the Indus, and was used as pastureland. In 1902, the lower Chenab canal was built by the British and it converted the flood plains of the Chenab into perennially irrigated areas. Peasants were brought in from Eastern Punjab and settled on the newly irrigated lands. As a result, the local pastoral clans rebelled against the British. The rebellion was ruthlessly crushed and the local clans were declared “criminal tribes” and were...

  2. (pp. 3-9)

    THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS of government institutions involved in development in Faisalabad are similar to that of other large cities in Pakistan. These institutions are the Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA); the Faisalabad Municipal Corporation (FMC); the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA); and the Cantonment Board.

    The FDA is a statutory body and functions under the control of the Housing, Physical and Environmental Control Department of the provincial government. It is not an elected body but the mayor of the city is a member of its governing council.

    The FDA is a policy-making body for the development of the city and...

  3. (pp. 10-13)

    IN ADDITION TO the FDA, FMC, WASA and Cantonment Board, there are other agencies involved in the development of Faisalabad. These include the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), a semi-autonomous body of the federal government, and the Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited, a public sector corporation under federal control, that provides natural gas for domestic and industrial purposes. Thus, the responsibility for the planning, development, delivery and maintenance of services is shared by a large number of agencies sometimes operating under independent statutory regulations. Since the powers of FDA and FMC over these agencies is limited, the task becomes...

  4. (pp. 13-30)

    The Trend towards Smaller Units. Faisalabad is the largest industrial city of Pakistan after Karachi. According to the Faisalabad Master Plan Survey 1985, in 1947 it had 20 industrial units. By 1985, this number had increased to 8,620, of which 4,695 were looms and an additional 23 were big textile units. In addition, there were 1,191 steel fabrication units and 682 carpet manufacturing units. Due to the large number of looms and textile units, Faisalabad has often been called the Manchester of Pakistan. However, it is no Manchester because, by 1985, over 6,200 of its 8,620 industrial units were small...

  5. (pp. 30-51)

    FAISALABAD CITY CONSISTS of chak numbers, or numbered villages, which became urbanized over time. The layout of these chaks was planned in 1885. The original city is chak number 212 and the area which includes Peoples Colony, Madina Town and Kohinoor Textile Mill is chak number 213. Chak number 214 consists of 94 murabas, including Dhuddiwala East and Dhuddiwala West. The rest of the murabas were agricultural land. Land in Dhuddiwala and the chak itself was owned by three bradries or clans. These were the Wattoos, the Kamonkas and the Balas. With the two murabas that constitute Dhuddiwala, the government...

  6. (pp. 51-53)

    SO FAR, THE ASB is the most successful of the OPP replication projects outside Karachi. The replication projects fall into three broad categories, which are discussed below.

    Projects that Never Developed. Two projects that were supported by WaterAid funding and OPP training never materialized. These are Okara Development Programme (ODP), Okara and the Community Development Concern (CDC), Sialkot. The ODP was introduced to the OPP by the Youth Commission for Human Rights (YCHR), Lahore, in 1994. The YCHR was supposed to supervise the project and help it evolve. However, this did not happen as the YCHR itself had certain operational...

  7. (pp. 53-55)

    THE ASB HAS adapted the OPP model to its context. Changes have been made in the methodology for motivation, in financing external development and through taking on service provision for the maintenance of infrastructure.

    The ASB, unlike the OPP, did not begin by holding meetings to motivate communities. It identified “respectable” community elders with whom it held individual dialogues and they, in turn, spoke to people who were under their influence. It was only when this process had been completed that a meeting was called. Even then, the elders decided on where and when to hold the meeting. Each development...

  8. (pp. 55-58)

    THIS SECTION CONSISTS of a note by Akbar Zaidi and is based on fieldwork and meetings with a number of senior employees from three of Faisalabad’s key infrastructure delivery institutions. Officials from the FAUP, WASA and the FDA were interviewed between February 12-15, 1999 and were asked for their opinions and analysis of the work undertaken by the ASB in the area of Hasanpura in Faisalabad. Also, since the ASB had been working closely with the OPP, they were asked for their views on the work of the OPP.

    Questions put to the officials included the following:

    How do government...

  9. (pp. 58-60)

    THE ASB MODEL consists of the following:

    community-built and financed sewers and water supply distribution lines in the lanes;

    ASB-built collector sewers and neighbourhood main water lines financed through a revolving fund and recovered from the community; and

    WASA-developed trunk sewers and disposal points and water source development and main lines.

    Given the financial and technical constraints of the government agencies as described in Sections II and III of this report and the ground realities as described in Section IV, Faisalabad cannot acquire a proper water and sanitation system for its existing and rapidly expanding population for at least the...