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Research Report

Policies and Governance Structures in Woodlands of Southern Africa

Godwin Kowero
Bruce M. Campbell
Ussif Rashid Sumaila
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2003
Pages: 452
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. xi-xii)
    Enos Shumba, Arlito Cuco, Said Iddi and Kenneth Nyasulu

    For many decades Southern African governments invested heavily in expanding their forest estates through plantations of exotic tree species, building a wood processing industry for both plantation and natural forest roundwood, providing the supporting infrastructure for this through training, research, management and administration. Research and training at all levels was dominated by plantation forestry. The focus in management was trees or forests, their industry and markets. This focus diminished attention of forestry institutions to non-industrial forestry, with the exception of managing water catchment forests.

    This state of affairs was disturbed by the awareness campaigns for an impending fuelwood crisis in...

  2. (pp. 1-8)
    G. Kowero

    Forest resources have significantly contributed to the economic development of many developed countries, like Finland, that are richly endowed with them. One would therefore expect the vast forest resources in many Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries to present opportunities to further economic development on the sub-continent. According to FAO (2001) Africa has about 650 million hectares of forests (almost all of it located in the tropics) or 0.85 hectares per capita (very close to the world average). This represents about 17% of the world forest resources. About one percent of the forest estate is plantation forest. These forests are distributed as...


    • (pp. 9-15)
      B.M. Campbell, S. Shackleton and E. Wollenberg

      This section touches on how natural forest resources are being managed at the local community level, in what is popularly known as community based natural resources management (CBNRM). Case studies were made on CBRM projects in Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, with additional material derived from another five countries. There are undoubtedly some notable successes in CBNRM. Emerging results from Babati in Tanzania, suggest that the shift of control from central government to local communities has seen a turn around in the resource base, from degraded and overused woodland to regenerating woodland with a set of rules governing use (Chapter 3).²...

    • (pp. 16-27)
      G.C. Kajembe, G.C. Monela and Z.S.K. Mvena

      Tanzania, like most other developing countries in Africa, has in recent years been fighting a losing battle in trying to protect vast areas of woodlands and natural forests scattered around the country. Consequently, forest resources in the country have been subjected to increasing pressure of exploitation. The government capacity to protect forests and woodlands has progressively declined with reduction in budgets and retrenchment of workers, making forests and woodlands even more vulnerable and open to degradation than before. A question emerged in recent years as to whether the main model of natural resource management, involving protection by policing, is the...

    • (pp. 28-44)
      B.B. Mukamuri, B.M. Campbell and G. Kowero

      In this study, participatory rural appraisal tools were employed in three smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe to investigate perceptions about organisations, and the factors driving organisational change. In 1991 Zimbabwe embarked on the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP) that encompassed wide-ranging economic reforms. Local people in the study areas linked many of the current hardships to ESAP and to the drought of 1991/92. The economic hardships were seen as the reason for the collapse of community endeavours and the increasing move away from the extended family. The reform measures have also negatively impacted on the state organisations operating in the...

    • (pp. 45-64)
      Dennis Kayambazinthu, Frank Matose, George Kajembe and Nontokozo Nemarundwe

      This study investigated the institutional arrangements governing the management of miombo woodlands by exploring factors resulting in institutional change and how institutions respond to change in the miombo woodland. It has demonstrated the existence of a multiplicity of institutions ranging from national to local and from formal to informal; each varying according to the particular socio-cultural and traditional context. Understanding institutions in the region and the processes involved in their origins, evolution and dynamics is observed as much more important than analysing and interpreting them according to the “design principles” approach under common property resource (CPR) systems. A historical analysis...

    • (pp. 65-79)
      C.M. Masangano, D. Kayambazinthu and L. Mwabumba

      Malawi is currently promoting a policy of communal management of miombo woodlands. This is occurring at a time when the country has changed its political system to multiparty democracy and is decentralizing government and promoting community involvement in development efforts. There is, however, need to understand the factors likely to lead to success or failure of community participation in management of miombo woodlands.

      Miombo woodlands contribute numerous resources to the livelihoods of rural households. Harvesting of miombo resources has most often led to conflicts among various parties. This paper discusses the major sources of conflict among communities living close to...


    • (pp. 80-91)
      G. Kowero

      Agriculture is critically dependent on environmental resources such as land, water, forest, and air. However, the use of these resources can affect, directly or indirectly, other natural resources through dynamic and complex interrelationships existing in the natural systems. This implies that wrong use of land, water, and forest in the production of crops and livestock can have far-reaching effects on environmental integrity. To avoid any adverse consequences, agricultural sector policies must fit in the overall environmental policy. This is critical in guiding proper and balanced use of natural resources and in defining sectoral responsibilities for environmental management. Agricultural policies, besides...

    • (pp. 92-112)
      C. Mataya, P. Gondo and G. Kowero

      This paper sheds some light on the effects of the colonial and post-colonial land policies and legislations on the management and utilisation of natural woodlands in Malawi and Zimbabwe. The two countries share similar patterns of land ownership structure; customary or tribal trust land designated by colonial governments for settlement and cultivation by indigenous population; private land mostly alienated from local communities for commercial farming and ranching, initially by white settlers and later officially sanctioned by post-colonial governments; and public land appropriated by government for the purpose of establishing national parks and forest reserves. The first two forms of land...

    • (pp. 113-137)
      I. Nhantumbo, G. Monela and G. Kowero

      This paper traces the evolution of land policies in Tanzania and Mozambique in both pre- and post-independence periods, and implications for forestry development. In the pre-colonial period, the structure of land tenure in both countries was based on common and open access regimes, which were regulated by traditional law and culture. There were no land markets, and since land was perceived to be abundant shifting cultivation was practiced. This encouraged gradual clearance of forests and land degradation.

      In the colonial period, traditional tenure systems were drastically altered, with unoccupied land or undeveloped land transferred into state ownership. Prime agricultural land...

    • (pp. 138-164)
      G. Mlay, F. Turuka, G. Kowero and R. Kachule

      This paper presents a review of agricultural policies deemed relevant to the management of natural forest resources in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. The competition between agriculture and forests for land and the role of man in influencing the balance between the two requires an articulation of sectoral, extra sectoral and macroeconomic policies in order to minimise undesirable policy effects.

      The paper presents a brief review of evidence from studies carried out in different parts of the world on the influence of agricultural policies on deforestation. This is followed by a review of agricultural development in the pre-independence and post...

    • (pp. 165-186)
      G. Kowero, A.S. Kaoneka, I. Nhantumbo, P. Gondo and C.B.L. Jumbe

      Many countries in eastern and southern Africa have lost significant natural forest resources. Initially the pace was gradual, but it has accelerated very much in the recent past. Some of the efforts made to contain the situation include revising past policies to improve forestry development and conservation. This paper traces the evolution of such policies together with corresponding implementation mechanisms in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Although broad policy statements on involving local communities in forestry have existed in some countries for several decades, adequate resources have not been committed for their effective operationalisation. Generally, the forestry sector in southern...

    • (pp. 187-211)
      M. Chitiga and N. Nemarundwe

      Government policies may have indirect or direct effects on the environment as well as on various natural resource users. These effects may be different for men and women given that these two gender groups are essentially involved in different activities and are found in different proportions in the rural areas where the majority of the population depend on miombo woodlands for their livelihoods. This paper uses Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe as case studies to bring out the linkages that exist between policies and gender in the management of miombo woodlands. The analysis of the paper brings to light that...


    • (pp. 212-217)
      G. Kowero

      A modeling approach was employed to reconcile the demands of various stakeholders on the woodland resources in ways that safeguard incomes and food security to local communities as well as sustaining the woodlands. The aim was to model problems and not systems like general household behaviour or woodland management systems. The candidate models adopted were arrived at in two workshops in 1998 and 1999 based on the following criteria:

      suitability for policy analysis,

      capacity to model real agent’s behaviour,

      availability of data,

      capacity to handle various stakeholders and their various and conflicting goals,

      availability of research capacity and skills within...

    • Modelling multi-stakeholder interests in the Southern African woodlands

      • (pp. 218-238)
        U.R. Sumaila, A. Angelsen and G. Kowero

        The miombo woodlands of eastern, central and southern Africa are some of the most extensive dry forests in Africa. They supply a myriad of products and services for local populations, governments and the private sector, the main stakeholders. Planning the management and use of the woodlands by many and diverse stakeholders who often have conflicting interests in the woodlands continues to be a great challenge to national governments and other interested parties.

        This paper presents a system dynamic model, MIOMBOSIM, which has potential for facilitating planning developments in the woodlands in ways which reconcile the aspirations of the three major...

      • (pp. 239-256)
        G. Kowero and U.R. Sumaila

        Miombo woodland is one of the most extensive dry forest vegetation types in Africa occurring in seven countries in eastern, central and southern Africa; namely Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The woodlands occupy an area of about 2.7 million square kilometres, almost equal to the combined land area of Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zambia.

        The miombo ecosystem forms an integral part of rural communities living in them or in their proximity by providing them with virtually all their energy requirements in terms of fuelwood. The woodlands also provide building materials like poles and...

      • (pp. 257-276)
        I. Nhantumbo and G. Kowero

        This paper presents a methodology employed in reconciling demands of households, private sector, and government on miombo woodlands of Southern Africa.

        A Weighted Goal Programming approach is presented for planning management and use of the woodlands as well as a framework for policy analysis. The approach is based on essentially two models, viz., household and private sector models, which are linked into a miombo woodlands model (MIOMBOGP). The MIOMBOGP provides a framework for evaluating the impact, on these two sectors and the woodlands, of some government macro-economic policies as well as some forestry and agricultural sector policies.

        Miombo woodland is...

    • Planning woodland management with weighted goal programming

      • (pp. 277-306)
        E. Guveya and C. Sukume

        This paper reports results on the use of a goal-programming model to the management of woodlands in two communities in communal areas of Zimbabwe – one abundant and the other less abundant in woodlands resources. The relatively well-endowed community borders the Mafungautsi Forest Reserve in Gokwe. The less endowed site was Mutangi in Chivi area. The objective of the modelling exercise was to simulate the effects of changes in agricultural policies and demographic changes in farming households on how local households use woodlands under an open access regime and under institutional constraints imposing sustainability concerns.

        The findings presented in the...

      • (pp. 307-333)
        H. Tchale, R. Kachule and C. Mataya

        Miombo is a local name for African woodlands prevalent in seven eastern and southern African countries, namely Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. The woodlands are surrounded by subsistence farmers who largely depend on them for their livelihood. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the utilization of the resources from the miombo woodlands is sustainable in the long-run, mainly due to the absence of effective control and management of these vast resources.

        In an effort to come up with a methodology for planning woodland management and use, a model called MIOMBOGP based on the weighted...

      • (pp. 334-357)
        I. Nhantumbo, G. Mlay and G. Kowero

        An analysis of potential impacts of selected sectoral and extra sectoral policies on miombo woodlands was conducted in the Mozambican districts of Dondo, Nhamatanda and Gondola-Manica. A Weighted Goal Programming model was developed that took into consideration household goals in the context of a set of activities and resources constraints on land, labour, food production, access to forest resources and others. Policy experiments were carried out through sensitivity analysis.

        Results indicated that harvesting forest products was the main off-farm source of income and employment for the household. The non-availability of adult male or female labour in the household, due to...

    • System dynamics approach to woodland management

      • (pp. 358-400)
        G. Mlay, M. Falcao, I. Nhantumbo and G. Kowero

        Forest resources play an important role in the economy of Mozambique. They are a significant source of livelihood and food security for rural people. The high rate of deforestation, estimated at 4.2% per year, coupled with land degradation, has been demanding a re-evaluation of the institutions and policies which guide the exploitation and conservation of forest resources. Management arrangements and policies that will meet the needs of stakeholders and at the same time guarantee a sustainable use of the forest resources are complex to devise.

        A case study of three sites in the provinces of Manica and Sofala was carried...

      • (pp. 401-422)
        C. Sukume and E. Guveya

        This paper reports results on the use of a systems dynamic model of woodland management (MIOMBOSIM) to two communities in communal areas of Zimbabwe – one abundant and the other less abundant in woodlands resources. The relatively well-endowed community borders the Mafungautsi Forest Reserve in Gokwe. The less endowed site was Mutangi in Chivi area. The objective of the modelling exercise was to simulate the effects over time of changes in agricultural and other economic policies on how local communities use woodlands under an open access regime and under institutional constraints imposing biodiversity concerns.

        The simulations point to the following...

      • (pp. 423-438)
        R. Kachule, H. Tchale and C. Mataya

        The effect of different policy changes in the forestry and agriculture sectors of Malawi were assessed using a systems dynamic model with the acronym MIOMBOSIM on three different sites, namely, Chimaliro, Dzalanyama and Mdeka. The model was applied to establish the effect of five management regimes on the welfare of the local communities and sustainability of forest resources. Five management scenarios were evaluated, namely, ‘command management regime’ which assumes that central, local or village government controls management of the resources; ‘cooperative management regime’ whereby local communities manage the resource with active cooperation among themselves; and ‘non cooperative management regime’ whereby...