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Research Report

A Manual of Diseases of Eucalypts in South-East Asia

Kenneth M. Old
Michael J. Wingfield
Zi Qing Yuan
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2003
Pages: 106
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-5)

    Eucalyptus species are second to pines in global importance as plantation trees. In the tropics and subtropics they are the most widely planted genus. Data published by FAO (1995) indicated that there were at least 1.4 million ha of formal Eucalyptus plantations in the South-East Asian region (Table 1). Midgley and Pinyopusarerk (1996), in reporting these statistics, indicated that the data did not include the equivalent of about 2.0 million ha growing as boundaries around fields and scattered trees. Since 1995 a number of countries, notably China, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, have accelerated planting programs. It is likely that eucalypt...

  2. Plantation diseases

    • (pp. 6-9)

      Black mildew

      This disease is caused by fungi belonging to the genus Meliola, family Meliolaceae, order Meliolales (Ascomycota). The Meliolales are obligate parasites producing a variety of structures which penetrate into the host cells. Meliola amphitricha Fr., M. densa Cooke and M. eucalypti F. Stevens & Roldan ex Hansford have been recorded on leaves of Eucalyptus spp. The black mildews are often confused with the common sooty moulds which are superficial, epiphytic saprophytes and also with members of the genus Meliolina, family Meliolinaceae, order Dothideales.

      Species of Meliola are primarily tropical. Meliola amphitricha was recorded on Eucalyptus sp. from Queensland and...

    • (pp. 10-13)

      Cryptosporiopsis leaf and shoot blight

      Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti Sankaran & B. Sutton

      Not known to occur on hosts other than Eucalyptus spp., C. eucalypti has been collected by the co-authors from Eucalyptus with leaf spot or shoot blight symptoms in Australia, Japan, Laos, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam, (Old and Yuan 1994, Old et al. 2002) South Africa and Uruguay (Wingfield unpublished). Other reports are from Brazil (Ferreira et al. 1998), Australia, India and Hawaii (Sankaran et al. 1995) and New Zealand (Gadgil and Dick 1999).

      Symptoms of C. eucalypti infection develop on both leaves and shoots of eucalypts. Leaf spots...

    • (pp. 14-18)

      Cylindrocladium foliar blight

      Cylindrocladium spp. are widespread and damaging pathogens of a very wide range of plant hosts including eucalypts. Cylindrocladium spp. have sexual states (teleomorphs) in the genus Calonectria de Not. There have been two major reviews of Cylindrocladium in the last decade, (Crous and Wingfield 1994, Crous 2002). In the latter publication, Crous has distinguished 39 Cylindrocladium spp. Of these 24 are listed as pathogens of Eucalyptus spp. and 15 of these have been found in South-East Asia.

      These fungi are most commonly found as the Cylindrocladium anamorph (asexual state) and those most commonly recorded often have very...

    • (pp. 19-24)

      Leaf spot, leaf blotch or leaf crinkle, depending on symptomology

      Worldwide more than thirty distinct species of Mycosphaerella are recognised on Eucalyptus (Park et al. 2000), causing a great variety of symptoms. The genus Mycosphaerella as found on Eucalyptus has not been clearly defined and may actually represent several distinct genera. This possibility is supported by the association, with different Mycosphaerella species, of a wide range of anamorphic states. Anamorphs include Colletogloeum, Colletogloeopsis, Coniothyrium, Phaeophleospora, Pseudocercospora, Sonderhenia, Stagonospora, Stenella and Uwebraunia. Several of these anamorphs are discussed in the sections on Phaeophleospora and Pseudocercospora spp.

      Significant changes in name combinations...

    • (pp. 25-31)

      Phaeophleospora leaf diseases

      Phaeophleospora spp.

      Four species have been recognised so far on Eucalyptus:

      P. epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Crous, F.A. Ferreira & B. Sutton; P. eucalypti (Cooke & Massee) J. Walker, B. Sutton & I. Pascoe; P. lilianiae (Cooke & Massee) J. Walker, B. Sutton & I. Pascoe (Walker et al. 1992); P. destructans M.J. Wingf. & Crous (Wingfield et al. 1996).

      There have been many changes in the nomenclature of P. epicoccoides and P. eucalypti, which can lead to confusion in identification and reporting of outbreaks. Taxonomic changes and new combinations are cited in detail in Walker et al. (1992), in Crous et al. (1997),...

    • (pp. 32-40)

      In addition to Cylindrocladium spp., Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, and Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs such as Phaeophleospora spp. (described elsewhere in this manual), many other foliar pathogens of Eucalyptus are present in plantations in South-East Asia. Most of these are described by Park et al. (2000) but there is generally little known regarding their pathogenicity or capacity to cause serious disease. In this section, several of these pathogens and their symptomology are briefly described, as they may be confused with more damaging organisms. Fungi included in this category are Aulographina eucalypti (Cooke & Massee) Arx & E. Mull., Coniella spp., Microsphaeropsis spp. and...

    • (pp. 41-49)

      Cryphonectria cankers

      Cryphonectria cubensis

      Diaporthe cubensis Bruner

      Cryphonectria cubensis (Bruner) Hodges

      C. eucalypti

      Endothia gyrosa (Schwein.:Fr.) Fr.

      C. eucalypti M. Venter & M.J. Wingf.

      C. gyrosa

      E. tropicalis Shear & N.E. Stevens

      E. havanensis Bruner

      C. gyrosa (Berk.& Br.) Sacc.

      Cryphonectria cubensis was first described as Diaporthe cubensis by Bruner (1917), who noted the pathogen on Eucalyptus cankers in Cuba. Hodges (1980) questioned the generic affinity of D. cubensis, placing it in the genus Cryphonectria on the basis of the stromatic tissue, the arrangement of the perithecia in the stromata and especially the presence of septate ascospores (Figs 57, 58). Walker et...

    • (pp. 50-54)

      Coniothyrium canker

      Coniothyrium zuluense M.J. Wingf., Crous & T.A. Coutinho

      This disease, known only on Eucalyptus spp., was first detected on clones of E. grandis in the KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa in 1991 (Wingfield et al. 1997). Infections were initially limited to a small locality but the disease spread rapidly throughout all subtropical areas of South Africa (Van Zyl et al. 2002a). In 2002, coniothyrium canker was reported on E. camaldulensis in Thailand (Van Zyl et al. 2002b) and was recently found in Mexico (Roux et al. 2002), Vietnam (Old and Wingfield unpublished), Argentina and Uruguay (Wingfield unpublished). There...

    • (pp. 55-59)

      Pink disease

      Erythricium salmonicolor (Berk. & Br.) Burds.

      As Corticium salmonicolor, this fungus is described in IMI Description 511 (Mordue and Gibson 1976). Other synonyms include Thanatephorus, Phanerochaete and Pellicularia spp.

      The fungus has a very wide host range, including Eucalyptus, Acacia and other genera important in forestry plantations. Erythricium salmonicolor is also a pathogen of fruit trees in orchards and in home gardens. It has caused serious damage to many tropical crops such as cacao, citrus coffee, tea, and rubber (Hilton 1958, Browne 1968).

      Worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, e.g. Australia (on fruit trees, not recorded on Eucalyptus) (penrose...

    • (pp. 60-66)

      Stem and branch cankers

      Botryosphaeria spp. and their anamorphs, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl., Dothiorella and Fusicoccum. Most collections on Eucalyptus have been placed in the B. dothidea–B. ribis complex. These species have often been regarded as synonyms but the taxa have recently been separated on the basis of DNA analyses (Zhou and Stanosz 2001, Slippers et al. In press). Dothiorella is regarded by Crous and Palm (1999) as a synonym of the earlier described genus Diplodia.

      Valsa., anamorphs Cytospora spp.

      A wide range of trees and woody shrubs, in plantations and native vegetation throughout temperate and tropical regions, including...

    • (pp. 67-70)

      Ralstonia solanacearum (Yabuuchi et al. 1995) Smith

      Synonyms: Bacillus solanacearum (Smith), Pseudomonas solanacearum (Smith) Smith, Burkholderia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al.

      Eucalypt-infecting strains are all Race 1 (the race with a broadest host range) and either biovar 1 (in South America) or biovar 3 (Asia and Australia) (Gillings and Fahy 1993). These biovars also attack a wide range of hosts including many woody species, e.g. casuarina, olive, teak, neem, cassava and cashew (Hayward 1993). Eucalypt hosts recorded so far include E. camaldulensis, C. citriodora, E. grandis, E. ‘leizhou’, E. pellita, E. propinqua, E. saligna, E. urophylla and E. grandis (Ciesla...

    • (pp. 71-75)

      Several species within the Class Basidiomycotina (Basidiomycetes), which encompasses fungi with sexually-produced spores borne on macroscopic fruiting structures bearing gills, pores or smooth hymenial surfaces. Important pathogens include species of Armillaria, Ganoderma and Phellinus, especially P. noxius (Corner) G.H. Cunn. These fungi invade woody roots and can gain access to butts and stems of trees via this route, in addition to infecting above-ground stems and branches. Several other genera can invade stems through wounds and cause heart rots of standing trees. Their importance in eucalypt plantations in South-East Asia, however, is probably slight as rotations are usually less than ten...

  3. Nursery diseases

    • (pp. 76-78)

      Healthy planting stock is a necessary requirement for the success of forest plantations, regardless of the species being grown. The design, construction, operation and maintenance of Eucalyptus nurseries in South-East Asia is rapidly changing in pace with the increase in plantation area and the adoption of new technologies, especially clonal forestry. Nursery techniques include simple operations using plastic bags containing seedlings in non-sterile soil, placed on the ground (Fig. 94); facilities with selected trees providing large numbers of cuttings propagated on a large scale (Fig. 95); and enterprises where plantlets, grown under sterile conditions from tissue-cultured mother plants, are propagated....

    • (pp. 79-83)


      The organisms most commonly associated with damping-off in eucalypt nurseries are Botrytis cinerea Pers., Cylindrocladium spp., Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn.

      Damping-off affects many host species including Eucalyptus spp. and is caused by a number of different pathogens sharing the capacity to exist in soils or other media in which seedlings and cuttings are grown. The pathogens can attack seedlings pre- or post-emergence and their impact is greatly heightened by poor nursery practice, especially lack of hygiene and over-watering. All Eucalyptus species are potential hosts to damping-off fungi, although susceptibility undoubtedly varies. For example, Podger and...

    • (pp. 84-87)

      Web blight

      Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk. (Mordue 1974) is the cause of a particularly damaging seedling blight occurring primarily in humid regions of the tropics. The genus Rhizoctonia represents a morphological group, being the mycelial state of several basiomycete fungal genera such as Thanatephorus and Ceratobasidium. Rhizoctonia spp. are characterised by sterile mycelia with rather wide hyphae (Fig. 99) and wide angled branching. The lateral branches are narrowed and septa occur near the junctions with the main axis of the hyphae (Fig. 100). Isolates identified as R. solani are pathogenic to plants, have brown or yellow-pigmented...

    • (pp. 88-92)

      Powdery mildew

      Several species of genera Erysiphe and Sphaerotheca belonging to the family Erysiphaceae of the order Erysiphales are reported to cause powdery mildews of various eucalypt species.

      Due to the absence of the teleomorph stage, powdery mildews on Eucalyptus are commonly recorded in various parts of the world as Oidium spp., the asexual stages of Erysiphe and Sphaerotheca. This problem of identification may be resolved in future by DNA sequencing of anamorph collections. Records in which teleomorphs have been associated with powdery mildew on Eucalyptus spp. are listed below.

      Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. and Erysiphe polyphaga Hammarl [= Erysiphe orontii...

  4. (pp. 93-96)

    Eucalyptus rust, guava rust

    Puccinia psidii Winter

    South America, mainly east of the Andes, including northern-most Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador and Columbia. Also present in Central America and the Caribbean, including Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Florida (Coutinho et al. 1998). This fungus is not known to occur in Africa, Australasia, Oceania or Asia and must be regarded as a dangerous exotic pathogen in countries where Eucalyptus and other Myrtaceae are grown or constitute native vegetation.

    All genera within the family Myrtaceae are potentially susceptible to this rust, but information on the host range is...