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Research Report

Carbon Forestry:: Who will benefit?

Daniel Murdiyarso
Hety Herawati
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2005
Pages: 225
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-vii)
    Koes Saparjadi

    I am really interested in the theme of the workshop “Carbon Sequestration and Sustainable Livelihood,” due to its close relation to the present global issue on climate change.

    We are aware that forest ecosystems is not only rich in biodiversity and genetic pools but also very important in watershed protection that regulate local hydrology and carbon pools that regulate global climate.

    Forest use and management practices in the past, which were concentrated more on timber production than forest services, resulted in a number of environmental and social problems, such as, land degradation, biodiversity loss, greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced access...

  2. (pp. viii-viii)
    Daniel Murdiyarso and Hety Herawati
  3. (pp. 1-16)
    Daniel Murdiyarso

    In many parts of the developing world carbon sequestration projects have been implemented in association with community development. This is a practical way to demonstrate environmental as well as social benefits of the projects. To some extent the projects are in line with the dual objectives of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Knowing the immaturity of CDM market and the dynamics of the negotiations in the Conferences of Parties (COPs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), it is timely to explore strategic and long-term approaches.

    This paper attempts to synthesize the lessons learned from...

  4. (pp. 17-25)
    Claudio Forner

    The tenth session of the Conference of the Parties (CoP) 10 to the United Nations Framewok Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) marked the completion of the policymaking process for the Kyoto Protocol. In the particular case of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), rules for this instrument itself and for reforestation and afforestation activities, including simplified rules for small-scale ones, have paved the road for the implementation of forestry-related projects that contribute to climate change and to sustainable development. This note will provide a short summary of the state of the instrument, in particular, on social issues that have been taken...

  5. (pp. 26-41)
    Bernhard Schlamadinger, Lorenzo Ciccarese, Michael Dutschke, Philip M. Fearnside, Sandra Brown and Daniel Murdiyarso

    Global deforestation and forest degradation rates have a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that during the 1990s 16.1 million hectares per year were affected by deforestation, most of them in the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that, for the same period, the contribution of land use changes to GHG accumulation into the atmosphere was 1.6±0.8 Gigatonnes of carbon per year, a quantity that corresponds to 25% of the total annual global emissions of greenhouse gases.

    Under the Kyoto Protoco (KP), industrialized countries can...

  6. (pp. 42-56)
    Esteve Corbera

    Markets for ecosystem services have emerged in recent years either in the form of nationa incentive schemes or international project-based initiatives. Carbon forestry activities have received considerable attention due to their potential to mitigate climate change, enhance forest conservation and foster local development. This has led to a steady increase in the number of projects implemented across the developing world under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or under voluntary markets. It is timely to provide empirical evidence from ongoing carbon forestry activities in order to examine their potential to achieve environmental and development outcomes. This paper draws...

  7. (pp. 57-73)
    Alexander Restrepo Quinceo

    This paper presents a series of legal considerations which would need to be taken into account for the design of a CDM and environmental service project. They derive from the experience of setting up a sustainable forest management-environmental service project in Colombia. The paper addresses first the importante of taking into account formal and informal resource tenure regimes, and provides the necessary steps for the elaboration of a situational synthesis exercise in project design. It then addresses the question of identifying and forming suitable stakeholder partnerships for project implementation.

    One of the most important aspects, from a legal and social...

  8. (pp. 74-91)
    Romain Pirard

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was created under the Kyoto Protocol, in order to help industrialized countries achieve their Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction targets at a lower cost. A second objective of the CDM is to help developing countries achieve sustainable development. To become eligible these projects have to demonstrate their additionality, and have a positive impact on local communities’ livelihoods. But the methodologies that have been proposed seem unsatisfactory, and the social impacts are often debated. This paper provides new insights on these methodologies, their weaknesses and potential improvements, and explores the social impacts of an afforestation/reforestation CDM...

  9. (pp. 92-111)
    Meine van Noordwijk, Atiek Widayati, Betha Lusiana, Kurniatun Hairiah and Bustanul Arifin

    Terrestrial carbon storage is one of a broader array of environmental services and lessons that can be shared between the mechanisms developed or under development for watershed functions, biodiversity, carbon storage and landscape beauty. In many situations a “bundling” of services will be needed to provide sufficient incentives for smallholders to avoid conversion to low-ES land use types. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is often considered to be intended for project-scale investment, with the reforestation CDMs focussed on fast growing trees. In fact, the mechanism can also be used by local government units to use an array of incentives to...

  10. (pp. 112-123)
    Gusti Z. Anshari and Armiyarsih

    Peatlands in West Kalimantan province are about 1.7 millions ha, and are distributed in coastal, sub-coastal and inland areas. All of these peatland types, both forested and non-forested peatlands, rapidly decline due to logging, biomass burning, and over-drainage for agriculture and human settlements. This paper presents carbon decline from selected peatlands and its implications on livelihood security of local communities. Samples for carbon analysis were collected from forested peatlands in Danau Sentarum National Park and open peatland used for agriculture in the Rasau Jaya region. Communities living in these forested and non-forested peatlands are indigenous Malays, Dayaks and transmigrated farmers....

  11. (pp. 124-138)
    Yus Rusila Noor, Jill Heyde and I Nyoman Suryadiputra

    The Climate Change, Forests and Peatlands in Indonesia (CCFPI) project is a four-year (August 2001- September 2005) carbon sequestration initiative funded through the Canada Climate Change Development Fund (CCCDF). The project consists of a range of community-based and policy-level activities related to the protection and rehabilitation of peat swamp forests and peatlands in Indonesia.

    The goal of the project is to improve the management of Indonesia’s globally important peatlands in order to improve the livelihoods of current and future generations, maintain and increase carbon storage, and conserve biodiversity. The specific objectives of the project are mainly to enhance the sustainable...

  12. (pp. 139-148)
    Makmun Ansori and Alue Dohong

    Climate Change, Forest and Peatlands in Indonesia (CCFPI) Project is restoring peatlands at the one million hectares ex-peatland project at Mentangai, Kapuas, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The main activities are canal blocking by the community and other peatland restoration-related activities such as rehabilitation activities, nurseries, fisheries, and hydrology monitoring and training activities.

    After one and a half years working together with the community, there are a lot of both joyful and difficult experiences to report. Some examples of the joyful ones are: (i) in general, the local communities are easy to work with as long as open-minded and honest principles are...

  13. (pp. 149-155)
    Adelina C. Santos-Borja and Rodel D. Lasco

    The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), the only lake basin management authority in the Philippines, started in 2004 the implementation of the Laguna de Bay Institutional Strengthening and Community Participation Project (LISCOP). This five-year undertaking is jointly funded by the World Bank and the Royal Dutch Government from which the LLDA will operationalize its co-management approach.

    One of the specific objectives of LISCOP is to harness and deepen community involvement in micro-watershed activities through community driven sub-projectssub-projects. One of the components of LISCOP is the Carbon Finance Program (CFP) wherein CDM eligible sub-projects will be identified from among the priority...

  14. (pp. 156-175)
    Bustanul Arifin

    This study examines institutional perspectives of lifescape co-management for reduced poverty and enhanced environmental services, drawn from three different sites of RUPES (Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services) in Sumatra, Indonesia. The study finds a high transaction cost of landscape co-management for better life (“lifescape”), implying a non-efficient economic organization of the society in the sites. The roles of intermediaries such as NGOs (national and international) are extremely important to reduce transaction costs, ensure more sustainable resource management, and contribute to good ecosystem services. Elements for policy reforms for better lifescape co-management could be summarized as follows: (1) clear, transparent,...

  15. (pp. 176-196)
    Garry A. Shea, Ika Francisca and Anny Andaryati

    Gender, like poverty, is a cross-cutting issue in climate change and needs to be recognized as such. There is a need to be strident to overcome the uninformed view of many involved in climate change that climate change is neutral, and real life examples are needed to make the alternative case clear and convincing.¹

    The Forest Resources Management for Carbon Sequestration (FORMACS) Project was a 3-year project implemented in the Nunukan District of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, with funding from the Canadian Climate Change Development Fund. Since these funds are Official Development Assistance (ODA) funds, and administered by the Canadian International...

  16. (pp. 197-210)
    Marlon Cardinoza

    One of the difficulties of implementing community-based forestry carbon sequestration projects in developing countries is that of protecting the forest and the established plantations from destructive elements such as fire, animal grazing and arbitrary cutting. Without strong natural resource management (NRM) regulations in place and enforcement support from the communities, such projects are doomed to fail.

    In Timor Leste, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)-funded and CARE-implemented Community-Based Natural Resource Management for Carbon Sequestration in East Timor Project (CBNRM-ET) started its implementation in 2002 in 12 villages. The goal was to maintain carbon stocks and increase carbon sequestration through the...