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Research Report

Carbon Sequestration and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Workshop Synthesis

Daniel Murdiyarso
Hety Herawati
Haris Iskandar
Copyright Date: Apr. 1, 2005
Pages: 30
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-v)
    Daniel Murdiyarso, Hety Herawati and Haris Iskandar
  2. (pp. 1-1)

    Carbon sequestration projects through land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities could demonstrate a win-win situation from the point of view of climate change and sustainable development. Properly designed, these projects conserve and/or increase carbon stock and at the same time improve rural livelihoods. Project design is very crucial. This includes the use of methodologies to determine the baseline of carbon stocks, to monitor additionality and leakage, and to assess the broader environmental and socio-economic effects. In this way, one can measure the maintenance or increase in carbon stocks, and simultaneously increase involvement of low-income rural communities in sustainable forestry,...

  3. (pp. 2-6)

    One of the Kyoto Protocol’s mechanisms that allows developed and developing countries to collaborate is the CDM. The objectives of the Protocol are two-folds, to assist developed countries to meet the emission reduction targets; and to assist developing countries to meet the objectives of sustainable development. There are a number of requirements to be met by project activities, to ensure that they truly support ‘development’ for the people living in the area, that they are ‘clean’, and that they follow proper procedures. Technically, eligibility of lands for the implementation of CDM project activities has to comply with the international rules...

  4. (pp. 7-8)

    In LULUCF projects the above-ground carbon stock at the beginning of the project and its changes over time can be estimated using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). The changes without the project (known as baseline) will be compared with the increase in carbon stocks due to the project to determine the additionality. Due to the slow increase monitoring may be conducted in every five years.

    In the case of small scale A/R CDM such luxury may not be affordable. Therefore, the indicative baseline will be developed by the Executive Board for different project types, such as:

    (a) Grassland...

  5. (pp. 9-11)

    In many parts of protected areas human settlements are rarely found. They are often seen as threat to the sustainability of the areas. Similar situation may be found in large scale plantation projects. The question is how forest-dependence people could benefit from LULUCF project either in protected or managed forests?.

    At the onset of project development, human dimensions could initially be identified and introduced. The project design could involve a wide range of stakeholders, including local community with the existing institutions.

    The case study in large-scale plantation of pulpwood in Riau Province, Indonesia indicates that the project has negative impacts....

  6. (pp. 12-12)

    Since most projects are recently developed some implementers are in a learning process. They are relatively expensive and the use of development assistance is greatly appreciated.

    To this end a number of questions remain:

    Who should be rewarded and received the benefits?

    How could the transaction costs be reduced to a level that increases local benefits?

    How fast would the track of the project cycle that attract private sector engagement?

    In LULUCF project finding beneficiaries is relatively easier because project participants are usually identified and involved in the planning stage. This is not the case for conservation activities. Reward mechanism...

  7. (pp. 13-13)

    At national level, in all the participating countries the national policy seems inclusive but a lot more to be done at lower levels (provincial, district). To large extent a lot of policy measure needs “surgery” for the sake of harmony and synergy.

    The capacity at local level is relatively poor and a special effort is needed to a address this issue. That is why participation of LULUCF activities in Southeast Asia is low due to:

    Lack capacity at different levels of government

    Capacity to implement, awareness of the national or local implication of the international agreement/law

    Lack of available expertise...

  8. (pp. 14-14)

    Some conclusions may be drawn from the presentations, discussion, and break-out sessions. These cut across scientific, technical or practical as well as policy-related issues.

    Climate project development will lead to enhanced environmental resilience and alleviation of rural poverty. Although the lessons learned are limited and experiences are sometimes not replicable, there are a number of success stories as well as failures that are worth taking into account.

    Some emerging technical/methodological issues need further elaboration by academia to support decision-making processes.

    Funding opportunities are still widely open, but asking the right questions would address strategic as well as practical solutions.