Village forests in Sayan Subdistrict are divided into the following three categories⁷. These categories of tenure are recognized and upheld by local communities, but they are not officially recognized by the state.
1. Ulayat forests⁸, often referred to as village or community forests, are communal forest areas covering whole village areas including protected areas. These forests are recognized as being collectively owned, and this ownership extends to the land itself.
2. Customary forests are forest areas in which villagers have rights over the possession, management and inheritance of certain trees. Ownership does not extend to the land itself. Ownership is based on...