Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Research Report

Community Forest Management as a Carbon Mitigation Option: Case Studies

Daniel Murdiyarso
Margaret Skutsch
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2006
Pages: 134
  • Cite this Item

Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-vi)
    Daniel Murdiyarso and Margaret Skutsch
  2. (pp. 1-7)
    Daniel Murdiyarso and Margaret Skutsch

    Deforestation in the tropics is a major source of carbon emissions and an active contributor to global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated that 1.7 billion tons of carbon is released annually due to land use change, of which the major part is tropical deforestation (IPCC 2001). This represents 20%–25% of current global carbon emissions. Deforestation emissions from Brazil and Indonesia alone are equivalent to the entire reduction commitment of the Annex 1 countries during the first commitment period.

    Under the current agreements in the Kyoto Protocol and the Marrakech Accords, this enormous source of emissions...

  3. (pp. 8-15)
    Bhaskar Singh Karky

    Community forest plays a prominent role in the hills of Nepal where agriculture and livestock rearing and forest are strongly interlinked. Based on the 1976 National Forestry Plan, the government of Nepal made a policy to involve local communities in forest management, with a view to tackling deforestation and the deteriorating state of the forest all over the country. By 2004 about 25% of all national forests, or around 1.1 million ha, were being managed by Community Forestry User Groups (CFUGs). There are more than 13,000 CFUGs in the country, involving 1.4 million households (i.e. 35% of population) (Kanel 2004),...

  4. (pp. 16-19)
    Eliakimu Zahabu

    Community Forests Management initiatives were introduced in Tanzania in the early 1980’s with some experiences of success stories from Nepal and India. The practice is already legitimized by the parliament through the current forest act (2002). Under this act there are mainly two main ways in which communities are involved in forest management: these are Joint Forest Management (JFM) and Community Based Forest Management (CBFM). Under JFM, the government involves local communities in carrying out different forest activities (such as patrolling, fire fighting and boundary clearing), as such forest ownership remains with the government while local communities are duty bearers...

  5. (pp. 20-25)
    Eliakimu Zahabu

    Kitulangalo forest area lies about 50 km to the east of Morogoro town, on the side of the Dar es Salaam-Morogoro highway (Figure 3.1). This is a relatively dry area with an average annual rainfall of about 850 mm. Formerly the forest was part of the Kitulangalo Catchment Forest Reserve. The high level of accessibility to the highway made this area a prime charcoal production area for the supply of the nearby Morogoro municipality and Dar es Salaam city. But in addition the forest suffered from timber extraction through the activities of local pit-sawyers, and from cutting of tree stems...

  6. (pp. 26-30)
    Ashish Tewari and Pushkin Phartiyal

    Uttaranchal, the newly formed hill state of India, is situated in the Indian Central Himalayas. The total geographical area of Uttaranchal (UA) is 5,563,174 ha, of this agricultural land is 792,000 ha (about 13% of the total area) and 3,671,695 ha is forest (about 66%). At present there are more than 12,000 Van Panchayats (VPs), the local forest councils responsible for forest management in UA occupying nearly 0.5 million ha of the total forest area (Table 4.1).

    From Uttaranchal a number of major rivers originate and nurse the great Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Forest cover found in the...

  7. (pp. 31-34)
    Libasse Ba

    Senegal is a country which is for the most part Sahelian, with a semi-arid climate. It has about 6 million ha of classified forests, representing 21.6% of its total area. In addition to the 213 classified forests, it has 20 silvo-pastoral reserves, 6 national parks, 8 special reserves and a number of so-called protected forests, which all together represent 31.7% of the total land area. In addition to conservation activities in these areas there is a significant amount of reforestation going on.

    At the same time there are other forest areas, in harsh climatic conditions, which have a tendency to...

  8. (pp. 35-42)
    Rupa Basnet Parasai

    In Nepal community managed forest has been seen not just as a tool to improve forest management but also as a means to alleviate poverty and promote equity in communities living in the periphery of the forest areas. Nepal is an agrarian society and from high land to the low land rural population is highly dependent on the land they cultivate and the forest from where they derive their basic needs. Forest is a source of livelihood, and most particularly for the poorer sections of the population. It is also a source of energy for the women, providing their supply...

  9. (pp. 43-50)
    Grace B. Villamor and Rodel D. Lasco

    Long before the concept of Kyoto Protocol and terms like ‘carbon sequestration’ were popularised in the Philippines, the Ikalahans (literally, ‘people of the broadleaf forest’) were far ahead of them. How was that possible? This paper presents the project Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services (RUPES) they provide in Kalahan, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines and the activities of the Ikalahans for carbon sequestration.

    The Ikalahans are the indigenous people in the province of Nueva Vizcaya in the northeast of the Philippines. They belong to the Kalanguya-Ikalahan tribe, which inhabits the Ikalahan ancestral domain. The domain, which includes the Kalahan Forest Reserve,...

  10. (pp. 51-59)
    Rodel D. Lasco and Florencia B. Pulhin

    Climate change is one of the primary concerns of humanity today. The third IPCC assessment report concludes that there is strong evidence that human activities have affected the world’s climate (IPCC 2001). The rise in global temperatures has been attributed to emission of greenhouse gases, notably CO2 (Schimell et al. 1995). Forest ecosystems can be sources and sinks of carbon (Watson et al. 2000). Deforestation and burning of forests releases CO2 to the atmosphere. Indeed, land-use change and forestry are responsible for about 25% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Forest ecosystems can, however, also help reduce greenhouse gas concentrations by...

  11. (pp. 60-73)
    Beria Leimona, Rizaldi Boer, Bustanul Arifin, Daniel Murdiyarso and Meine van Noordwijk

    The hills surrounding Lake Singkarak at the equator in Sumatra are a mosaic of natural forest, strongly degraded forest, grassland, failed reforestation projects, home gardens and agroforestry systems, separated from the lake by a zone of intensive paddy rice cultivation. There are clear opportunities for an increase in carbon stock through trees that farmers want and expect to gain the benefits from. A substantial part of the grasslands belongs to the community, and negotiations over resource sharing for reforestation on the state forest land are ongoing.

    In 2002, the National Strategy Studies on CDM conducted by the Indonesian Ministry of...

  12. (pp. 74-84)
    Desi Ariyadhi Suyamto, Meine van Noordwijk, Betha Lusiana and Andree Ekadinata

    Under the regime of the Kyoto Protocol, the CDM through its window for ‘reforestation’ projects can facilitate the transformation of lands that were deforested before 1990 into tree-based land use systems. However, any proposed application of the mechanism will have to ensure additionality (increases of carbon stock in the accounting area due to the CDM intervention over and above what would be expected for a location-specific baseline) and account for leakage (negative effects on carbon stocks outside of the accounting area that are causally linked to the CDM intervention). Furthermore, the mechanism will also have to qualify as ‘development’, by...

  13. (pp. 85-93)
    Rizaldi Boer, James M. Roshetko, Hardjanto, Lala Kolopaking, Andri Akbar, Upik Rosalina Wasrin, Bambang Dwi Dasanto and Sri Rahayu

    Loksado protection forest is located at Loksado subdistrict, Hulu Sungai Selatan district, South Kalimanatan province. Grasslands cover a wide area of this forest land. The grasslands developed as a result of traditional upland rice cultivation practices of the indigenous Dayak tribes. The Dayak community in the Loksado area open a patch of secondary forest or shrubland to cultivate upland rice for 1–2 years, with zero agricultural input (fertilizers, herbicides or insecticides). The land is then fallowed, and traditionally the fallow lasts for 20 or more years. Due to population and other modern pressures, however, the fallow cycle in most...

  14. (pp. 94-106)
    James M. Roshetko, Rizaldi Boer, Hardjanto, Lala Lolopaking, Andri Akbar, Upik Rosalina Wasrin, Bambang Dwi Dasanto and Sri Rahayu

    Sidenreng Rappang (Sidrap) district is located in South Sulawesi province, about 185 km to the north of Makassar. It covers an area of 1,883 km², or roughly 3% of the total area of South Sulawesi. Sidrap contains 11 subdistricts (Kecamatans), 38 subsubdistricts (Kelurahans) and 65 villages. Land use in Sidrap is dominated by 37,212 ha of irrigated rice fields, 19,162 ha of pasture, and 15,326 ha coconut plantations. Other land uses/crops include dryland rice (8,987 ha), cacao (6,765 ha), candlenut (6,398 ha), cloves (4,064 ha), cashew (2,304 ha), black pepper (210 ha), coffee (172 ha) and cotton trees (141 ha)...

  15. (pp. 107-119)
    Haris Iskandar, Daniel Murdiyarso and Markku Kanninen

    The study site is located in Bombana district, Southeast Sulawesi. It covers an area of 702 ha. Most of the lands are considered to be unproductive and are dominated by Imperata cylindrica grassland, which is aggressively expanding in relatively poor soils. The area is occupied mostly by smallholder farmers, the major project stakeholders in addition to the local government. There is great interest of both the government and local community to convert these vast Imperata grasslands to more productive fruit tree and timber-based systems. Both fast- and slow-growing species, with rotations of 5–7 years and 30 years, respectively, are...

  16. (pp. 120-125)
    Margaret Skutsch and Daniel Murdiyarso

    The 13 case studies presented in the previous chapters have demonstrated that small-scale, low-key forest activities by local communities may be an effective way of reducing rates of degradation and increasing the rate at which natural forest is able to sequester carbon, as well as a means of sequestering carbon in new plantations. Under the current Kyoto Protocol arrangements (i.e. under CDM), only the latter activity is eligible for carbon crediting, but the case studies illustrate the fact that local communities are easily capable of mitigating carbon in a variety of ways through better management of existing forest, provided that...