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Research Report

Forest rehabilitation in Indonesia: Where to after more than three decades?

Ani Adiwinata Nawir
Lukas Rumboko
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2007
Pages: 316
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-10)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir and Murniati

    Indonesia is a country with one of the world’s largest areas of tropical forest. The forest areas cover up to 120.4 million ha, or 68% of its total land area (Baplan 2002). Indonesian forests provide habitats for globally important species of flora and fauna. Economically, since the 1980s, forest resources have contributed to the rapid growth of the country’s Gross National Product.

    Unfortunately, illegal logging, forest fires, forest conversion, unplanned agricultural expansion, consequences of the beginning of Reformation Era since 1998, and social problems, such as disenchantment, resentment and conflict over forest resources with local communities, have contributed significantly to...

  2. (pp. 11-32)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir and Lukas Rumboko

    Understanding the causes of deforestation and land degradation is a very crucial as part of the process of designing effective rehabilitation initiatives. These causes often also act as the continuing disturbances in the rehabilitation sites, with various factors behind them. These include the dynamic changes of forest management in Indonesia, and direct and indirect driving factors. Rehabilitation initiatives are less likely to be successful, unless the causes are overcome simultaneously with the implementation of rehabilitation initiatives. This chapter presents a historical overview of forest management changes and the complex driving factors behind the deforestation and land degradation at the national...

  3. (pp. 33-74)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Murniati and Lukas Rumboko

    Forest and land rehabilitation initiatives have been directly and indirectly affected by forest policies and programmes implemented since the 1950s. However, the impacts have not been very positive for successful rehabilitation initiatives. Understanding past policies and programmes is important for policy and decision makers to acquire useful lessons learnt, so similar mistakes or failures are not repeated. This chapter presents an overview of different polices that were or are being implemented, since the1960s. Important polices and programmes are discussed in detail, such as the policy and approach to differentiate reforestation and afforestation, the forest land classification system of the Forest...

  4. (pp. 75-112)
    Murniati, Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Lukas Rumboko and Tini Gumartini

    Indonesia has a long history of forest rehabilitation, dating far back beyond the country’s independence in 1945. It started as a spontaneous activity encouraged by culture and beliefs, and subsequently evolved into planned and systematically developed programmes and projects implemented in priority areas. The form that each rehabilitation initiative took was influenced by causes of forest and land degradation, driving forces related to the time of implementation, and status of the rehabilitation area. Understanding the features of different rehabilitation initiatives, and factors influencing the approaches, provides important lessons learnt in designing future rehabilitation programmes. The approaches, objectives and techniques have...

  5. (pp. 113-176)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Murniati, Lukas Rumboko, Chiharu Hiyama and Tini Gumartini

    The historical national overview of rehabilitation initiatives suggests insignificant achievements from the high investments on a range of rehabilitation initiatives. The investments have not only covered funding, but also expertises, social and institutional contributions. In-depth observations and analysis on the impacts of rehabilitation initiatives on the ground were conducted of the ten selected rehabilitation projects. The discussion on impacts and lessons learnt focuses on the changes in land productivity, environmental conditions, community livelihoods, project management, institutional arrangements, and access to forest resources. The changes were focussed by comparing the conditions within two timeframes: up to five years after the projects...

  6. (pp. 177-222)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Murniati and Lukas Rumboko

    Rehabilitation activities in Indonesia have a long-history dating back to well before the Dutch Colonial period. However, the study reported in this book has focused on the more recent times of the last three decades, where formal programmes and projects have been implemented in more than 400 locations. Based on the observations made in this study, the rehabilitation activities have been more reactive than proactively embedded in implemented or imposed forest management policies. For example, among a few integrated precautionary policies, was the regulation on silvicultural systems of TPTI, THPA, THPB, and TPTJ as discussed in Chapter 3. Following their...

  7. (pp. 223-234)
    Ani Adiwinata Nawir and Murniati

    The development of forest and land rehabilitation initiatives in Indonesia has been dynamic and complex. Therefore, there are also complicated and interrelated aspects that may well influence the effectiveness and the sustainability of rehabilitation initiatives now and in the future. Rehabilitation activities in Indonesia have a long-history of more than three decades, implemented to restore degraded areas, amounting to 96.3 million ha (54.6 million ha inside state forest and 41.7 million ha outside state forest). With the rates of realisation in rehabilitation efforts varying between 19% and 93% across various programmes since 1961, it would seem that rehabilitation initiatives and...