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Research Report

REDD, forest governance and rural livelihoods: The emerging agenda

Oliver Springate-Baginski
Eva Wollenberg
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2010
Pages: 289
OPEN ACCESS
https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep02114
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 1-18)
    Eva Wollenberg and Oliver Springate-Baginski

    How can reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives enhance the livelihoods and political participation of people living in or near forests? This question was the focus of a workshop held 6-8 April 2009 in Norwich, UK, by the University of East Anglia and Center for International Forestry Research.

    Whilst REDD must reduce emissions, REDD mechanisms are more likely to be successful if they build on, rather than conflict with, the interests of local communities and indigenous groups (‘forest communities’). REDD initiatives will directly affect 1 to 1.6 billion people who depend on forests and are amongst the...

  2. Section I Framing the issues

    • (pp. 21-30)
      Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff

      This chapter gives a brief update of the global negotiations on REDD and related key issues drawn mainly from a recent Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia (IPAM) publication on REDD (Angelsen 2008a and associated presentation). The focus is on key issues particularly relevant for REDD and the livelihoods of forest communities.

      Table 2.1 summarises the emergence of REDD in international climate negotiations.

      Since Bali, several activities have begun. Amongst the major initiatives is the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). This is administered by the World Bank and has...

    • (pp. 31-46)
      William Sunderlin, Adrian Martin and Katrina Brown

      A variety of approaches to reduce deforestation whilst improving local livelihoods have been taken since at least the 1980s, when social and community forestry programmes became popular. Over the years the approaches have grown in sophistication and scope. REDD demonstration projects and programmes with REDD components are building on these experiences.

      Three workshop presentations synthesised the major lessons learned about tenure reform, payments for environmental services, the Clean Development Mechanism and carbon markets. These presentations, by Sunderlin, Martin and Brown respectively, are a starting point for informing REDD. We provide the text of the presentations here in outline form as...

  3. Section II Snapshots of REDD experiences in six countries

    • (pp. 47-52)

      To identify and explore the key governance and livelihood issues related to REDD, assessments of the status of REDD and scenarios for the design of REDD for five countries were presented at the workshop. Participants discussed the likely effects of the different REDD scenarios on local governance and livelihoods in each country, and the potential worldwide impact. Reports covered Brazil, Tanzania, Indonesia, Mexico and Nepal. The report on Madagascar was prepared for these proceedings after the workshop.

      To guide the assessments, authors were asked to report on the key drivers of deforestation and the major forest policy issues in each...

    • (pp. 53-72)
      Osvaldo Stella Martins, Paulo Moutinho, Ricardo Rettmann and Erika de Paula P. Pinto

      Brazil is one of the five biggest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. Seventy-five percent of Brazilian emissions are related to changes in land use, mainly deforestation of tropical forest (UNFCCC 2004). At the beginning of the 1970s, the Brazilian Amazon forest covered an area of 4.18 million km². Of this, 650 000 km² or 15% – an area larger than France – has been deforested (Soares-Filho et al. 2008).

      During the 1990s deforestation rates were around 17 000 km² per year. Currently, the average deforestation rate is 11 000 km² per year, but Brazil continues to be the...

    • (pp. 73-94)
      Stibniati Atmadja and Eva Wollenberg

      With nearly 100 million hectares of state forest, Indonesia has the world’s third largest area of tropical forest after Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the fourth largest carbon stock globally (8% or 8800 MtC (million tonne carbon)).¹ Indonesia’s current emissions from deforestation and peatlands make it the third largest emitter of carbon after the United States and China, and the second largest emitter of forest-related carbon (597 MtCO₂/year) amongst high carbon-stock countries.²

      Projections of continuing losses of forest cover in production forest areas suggest that an additional 14 million ha, or 39% of presently forested production forests,...

    • (pp. 95-108)
      Esteve Corbera and Manuel Estrada

      Historically, Mexico has been relatively unsuccessful in promoting sustainable forest management and conservation. According to Bray and colleagues (2005), deforestation rates during the period 1976–2000 average 86 718 hectares per year (ha/yr) for temperate forests and 263 570 ha/yr for tropical forests, whilst the total annual loss for all ecosystem types averages 545 000 ha/yr. These data place Mexico amongst the most deforested countries in the world. Mexico’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Readiness Plan Idea Note (R-PIN) (Sosa Cedillo et al. 2008) acknowledges that deforestation is still occurring across most forest types but also stresses that 116 000 ha...

    • (pp. 109-134)
      Rogers E. Malimbwi and Eliakim Zahabu

      Tanzania has a total area of about 88.6 million ha (94.5 million ha if the country’s extensive water bodies are included). Forestland covers 35.3 million ha (39.8% of the land area) and around 18 million ha of this has been gazetted as forest reserves (managed by central government and local authorities, or as village land forests and plantation forests). National parks account for 2 million ha of ‘reserved’ forest. However, the rest of the forestland (17.3 million ha, or 49%) is ‘general land forests’, unreserved, largely unprotected and open access. General land forests are affected by a range of issues,...

    • (pp. 135-172)
      Barry Ferguson

      Madagascar is renowned for its diversity of endemic species; around 80% of the fauna and 90% of the flora on the island are found nowhere else on earth. This has earned the island various labels that point to its importance for conservation, one of the most popular being ‘biodiversity hotspot’ (Myers et al. 2000). Madagascar is also typically portrayed as a prime example of poverty as the driver for deforestation (slash and burn subsistence agriculture). A popular environmental degradation narrative claims that 90% of Madagascar’s habitats have been destroyed by man in the two thousand or so years since his...

    • (pp. 173-194)
      Oliver Springate-Baginski, Binod Bhatta and Francesca Booker

      This paper addresses how reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) might be achieved in Nepal. It also looks at the challenges to REDD in the Nepal’s distinctly different regions and the likely consequences for local people of REDD interventions.

      Nepal presents uniquely interesting perspectives on how emerging REDD mechanisms may work, and how they may affect local forest peoples and their livelihoods. The forested area in Nepal is much smaller (14.3 million ha) than in countries like Brazil, Indonesia or the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nevertheless, Nepal has had significant experience in reversing deforestation in a relatively pro-poor...

  4. Annexes